Module Information

Module Identifier
Module Title
Academic Year
Semester 2
CR10120 / CR12430 / TR12430 / LA39220 / GF39220
Other Staff

Course Delivery

Delivery Type Delivery length / details
Lecture 20 hours total
Seminars / Tutorials 6 Hours. 3 x 2 hour seminars.


Assessment Type Assessment length / details Proportion
Semester Exam 2 Hours   Exam  Candidates are not permitted to bring any books, notes or any other materials into the examination.  100%
Supplementary Exam 2 Hours   Exam  Candidates are not permitted to bring any books, notes or any other materials into the examination.  100%

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module students should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a sound critical awareness of and understanding of the major theories, perspectives and concepts in the study of victims and victimology.

2. Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of how victimization is socially, politically and legally constructed and how this informs policies, practices and debates locally, nationally and internationally.

3. Apply criminological theory to various situations and reflect on and develop a critical understanding of the concepts, theories, policies and practices associated with victims and victimology.

4. Identify, explain and evaluate the role of victims within different official and unofficial presentations and be able to assess their impact on crime, enforcement, punishment and offenders as well as the impact of each of these on victims.

5. Explain and critically analyse a nuanced concept of the victim.

6. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the victim, their needs and their roles, from sociological and psychological perspectives.

Brief description

Academic rationale: In recent years victims have become more central to the study of criminology and to the shape of legal, enforcement and punishment systems. The module provides a detailed understanding of this aspect of the subject.

Brief Description: The module will consider the nature of victimhood both in legal and sociological terms. This will be done firstly from the standpoint of the victim and then from media or other popular positions. It will then explore and challenge some of the stereotypical conceptions of victimization through a consideration of a number of types of victim. Finally it will move on to the position of victims within the criminal justice system. It will take account of critical and feminist theoretical positions.


Defining victims: Becoming a victim; Contested notions of victimhood; Limits of legal conceptions of victim - Zemiological and abolitionist considerations.

Perceptions of Victims: Legal; Media and popular culture; Offender.

Types of Victim: Rape - male and female victims; Domestic violence - male and female victims; Victims of state violence; Victims of terrorism; Sociological; Psychological.

Victim Participation: In the Exclusionary Criminal Justice System; Restorative Justice; The changing role of victims within the criminal justice system .

Consequences of Victim Centred Systems: The impact of victims on the criminal justice system; The impact of the criminal justice system on victims.

Module Skills

Skills Type Skills details
Application of Number Understanding and evaluating relevant quantitative research data will be a part of the module, at least in relation to certain theories.
Communication Oral communication skills will be encouraged and honed in seminars and also in lectures - not assessed. Written communication skills will be practised through note taking both in lectures and private study and in formal submission of written work in assignments and examinations.
Improving own Learning and Performance Students will be expected to read selected texts and from these materials build on their lectures and test their own learning, especially in seminars. This will enable them to take more control over their learning and to locate problem areas which they will be supported in overcoming.
Information Technology Preparation for seminars, the assignments and the examination will all require use of the library databases and other electronic databases. Students will be referred to useful urls and be encouraged to retrieve data electronically. Students will be encouraged to prepare their assignment electronically.
Personal Development and Career planning Enhanced capacity for independent and critical thought. Good time-management skills in preparing for seminars and submitting work on time - not assessed.
Problem solving Students will be studying legal, theoretical and sociological sources to ascertain how these interplay to solve some difficult issues of law and crime control
Research skills Students will be expected to locate material both on line and in the library and to use these materials for assignments, seminar preparations and examinations. They will be encouraged to develop individual research skills in order to perform these tasks effectively.
Subject Specific Skills
Team work As well as individual work, the seminars will involve team work tasks allowing students to support each other in interactive learning.

Reading List

General Text
(1996.) A glimpse of hell :reports on torture worldwide /edited by Duncan Forrest for Amnesty International United Kingdom. Cassell : Primo search (2002.) Crime victimization in comparative perspective :results from the International Crime Victims Survey, 1989-2000 /editor, Paul Nieuwbeerta. Boom Juridische uitgevers Primo search (2002.) New visions of crime victims /edited by Carolyn Hoyle and Richard Young. Hart Primo search (2001.) Repeat victimization /Graham Farrell and Ken Pease, editors. Criminal Justice Press Primo search (1986.) Research on victimisation /Council of Europe. Council of Europe Primo search (1985.) Research on victimisation /Council of European Committee on Crime Problems. Council of Europe Primo search (2003.) Restorative justice :critical issues /edited by Eugene McLaughlin ... [et al.]. SAGE in association with The Open University Primo search (1998.) The 1998 British crime survey :England and Wales /Catriona Mirrlees-Black ... [et al.]. Home Office Primo search (2007.) The Oxford handbook of criminology /edited by Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan and Robert Reiner. 4th ed. Oxford University Press Primo search (1992.) Towards a critical victimology /edited by Ezzat A. Fattah. St. Martin's Press Primo search (c1997.) Victims of crime /editors, Robert C. Davis, Arthur J. Lurigio, Wesley G. Skogan. 2nd ed. Sage Publications Primo search (c1990.) Victims of crime :problems, policies, and programs /Arthur J. Lurigio, Wesley G. Skogan, Robert C. Davis, editors. Sage Publications Primo search (1988.) Victims of crime: a new deal? /edited by Mike Maguire and John Pointing. Open University Press Primo search Cohen, Stanley (2001) States of denial :knowing about atrocities and suffering /Stanley Cohen. Polity Primo search Coleman, Clive. (1996.) Understanding crime data :haunted by the dark figure /Clive Coleman, Jenny Moynihan. Open University Press Primo search Elias, Robert (c1993.) Victims still :the political manipulation of crime victims /Robert Elias. Sage Publications Primo search Fattah, Ezzat A. (1986.) From crime policy to victim policy :reorienting the justice system /edited by Ezzat A. Fattah. Reorienting the Justice System. Macmillan Primo search Gottfredson, Michael R. (1984.) Victims of crime :the dimensions of risk /Michael R. Gottfredson. H.M.S.O. Primo search Karmen, Andrew. (c2001.) Crime victims :an introduction to victimology /Andrew Karmen. 4th ed. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning Primo search Koffman, Laurence. (1996.) Crime surveys and victims of crime /Laurence Koffman. University of Wales Press Primo search Maguire, Mike (c1987.) The effects of crime and the work of victims support schemes /Mike Maguire and Claire Corbett. Gower Primo search Mawby, R. I. (1987.) Crime victims :needs, services and the voluntary sector /R.I. Mawby, M.L. Gill. Tavistock Primo search Norquay, Geoff (Jan. 1981) Services to Victims and Witnesses of Crime in Canada Canadian Government Publishing Primo search Rock, Paul. (1990.) Helping victims of crime :the Home Office and the rise of victim support in England and Wales /Paul Rock. Clarendon Primo search Russell, Justin. (c1990.) Home Office funding of victim support schemes :money well spent? /by Justin Russell. Home Office Primo search
Should Be Purchased
Spalek, Basia. (2006.) Crime victims :theory, policy and practice /Basia Spalek ; consultant editor Jo Campling. Palgrave Macmillan Primo search
Essential Reading
(2007.) Handbook of victims and victimology /edited by Sandra Walklate. Willan Primo search (2002.) The Oxford handbook of criminology /edited by Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan and Robert Reiner. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press Primo search (2007.) Victims, crime and society /edited by Pamela M. Davies, Peter Francis, Chris Greer. SAGE Primo search Goodey, Jo. (2005.) Victims and victimology /Jo Goodey. Pearson Longman Primo search Walklate, Sandra. (2007.) Imagining the victim of crime /Sandra Walklate. Open University Press Primo search
Recommended Text
(c2000 (2010 pri) Integrating a victim perspective within criminal justice :international debates /edited by Adam Crawford and Jo Goodey. Ashgate Primo search (2003.) Victimisation :theory, research, and policy /edited by Pamela Davies, Peter Francis, and Victor Jupp. Palgrave Macmillan Primo search Davies, Pamela (2011.) Gender, crime and victimisation /Pamela Ann Davies. SAGE Primo search Dignan, James (Dec. 2004) Understanding Victims and Restorative Justice Open University Press [Imprint] Primo search Mawby, R. I. (1994.) Critical victimology :international perspectives /R.I.Mawby and S.Walklate. Sage Publications Primo search Wolhuter, Lorraine. (2009.) Victimology :victimisation and victims' rights /Lorraine Wolhuter, Neil Olley and David Denham. Routledge-Cavendish Primo search


This module is at CQFW Level 6