# Module Information

#### Course Delivery

Delivery Type | Delivery length / details |
---|---|

Lecture | 22 lectures and examples classes |

#### Assessment

Assessment Type | Assessment length / details | Proportion |
---|---|---|

Semester Exam | 2 Hours Written Examination | 70% |

Semester Assessment | Course Work: 2 Example Sheets. | 30% |

Supplementary Exam | 2 Hours Written Examination | 100% |

### Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module students should be able to:

Understand the principles of the zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics and apply the laws to solve associated problems.

Identify the principal thermodynamic steps in the operation of heat engines and calculate efficiencies.

Be familiar with the basic concepts of reversibility and entropy.

Explain the basic concepts of statistical mechanics and their applications to investigate properties of matter.

### Aims

The module considers the laws of thermodynamics and associated thermodynamic properties and introduces the theories for real gases and phase transitions. It also presents the techniques of statistical mechanics for linking microscopic properties of matter with thermodynamic parameters. It covers core material in preparation for more advanced modules.

### Brief description

### Content

1. Ideal gas, state variables, changes of state.

2. Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, temperature scales.

3. Work, Heat and Internal Energy, first law of thermodynamics.

4. Heat Capacity, Enthalpy.

ENTROPY

1. Entropy and its statistical definition.

2. Reversible and irreversible processes.

3. Heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps.

4. The second law of thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck, Clausius statements.

5. Carnot cycle, thermodynamic temperature scale.

6. The third law of thermodynamics and absolute entropy.

THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND MAXWELL RELATIONS

1. Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies.

2. The Maxwell relations.

3. Phase equilibria.

4. Clausius-Claperyon relation.

REAL GASES

1. The van der Waals equation of state, critical temperature, the Dieterici equation of state.

2. Virial expansion, Boyle temperature, condensation of gases.

3. Joule-Kelvin expansion.

PHASE TRANSITIONS

1. Thermodynamic definition, phase rule, and mixing of real solutions.

2. Calculation of thermodynamic potentials and partition function.

3. Dynamics of phase transitions, fluctuations of density, nucleation and diffusion.

STATISTICAL MECHANICS

1. Basic ideas: Assembly. Macrostates and Microstates. Distinguishable and Indistinguishable identical particles. Quasi-independent. Distribution. Entropy and number of microstates.

2. Distinguishable particles: Distributions of a macrostate. Most probable distribution. Boltzmann distribution. Partition function. Partition function and thermodynamic functions.

3. Indistinguishable particles: Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Bose-Einstein distribution function. Dilute gas. Density of states. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. Partition function for a Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Partition function and thermodynamic functions. Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution. Introduction to: Fermi-Dirac gases, Fermi energy, Fermi temperature and Bose-Einstein condensation.

### Reading List

**General Text**

C.B.P. Finn Thermal Physics Nelson-Thornes (previously published with Routledge) Primo search P.A. Tipler Physics for Scientists and Engineers W.H. Freeman 1999 Primo search

**Recommended Text**

P.W. Atkins Physical Chemistry Oxford Press Primo search Trevena, David Henry. (c2001 (2003 pri) Statistical mechanics :an introduction /D.H. Trevena. Horwood Pub. Primo search

**Supplementary Text**

Guenault, A. M. (1995 (various p) Statistical physics /Tony Guenault. 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall Primo search

### Notes

This module is at CQFW Level 5