Prof Christopher Harding

BA (Oxon), LLM (Exon)

Prof Christopher Harding


Contact Details


Originally not from Wales (an FAQ), I studied at the Universities of Oxford and Exeter before moving still further west to Aberystwyth. During my time here I have also had terms of office as Dean of the former Faculty of Law, Director of Postgraduate Studies for the university, and variously as Deputy and Acting Head of Department before undertaking a term as Head of Department (2007-9). I have been involved in numerous instances of research collaboration with several other people now scattered around the world and was Visiting Fellow at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven during February-March 2011. At present I am also a member of the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Peer Review College and a Strategic Reviewer for the AHRC.

Additional Information

Upcoming Events

  • Socio-Legal Studies Association Conference, University of York, March 2013.
  • 2nd Cartel Crime Conference, University of Luxembourg, June 2013.

Photograph: Prague 2000, courtesy of Ryszard Piotrowicz


Module Coordinator
Additional Tutor

My teaching experience and expertise has been broadly in the fields of European Law, Public International Law, Criminal Justice, the Penal System, Human Rights and Legal Theory. At present I contribute teaching to undergraduate modules in International Law, the History of Crime and Punishment, Criminology of Human Rights Violations, Crime and Misconduct in Business, Politics and the Professions, and Corporate Governance; and LLM modules on the Regulation of Business Cartels, and the Philosophy of Human Rights Protection.

I also have a strong interest in research training and its role in the university curriculum and have been involved in the development of and contributed to postgraduate research training modules at both university and departmental levels.

In recent years I have been a visiting teacher at the Universities of Helsinki, Bergen, Leuven, Viadrina (Frankfurt (Oder)), Brno, and Budapest.

Postgraduate supervision

I have supervised and examined a number of postgraduate theses, especially in the fields of International Law and Criminal Justice. At present I am supervising postgraduate research, as principal supervisor, on the following topics :

  • Consistency and complementarity in sentencing under international criminal law - (Samantha Richards)
  • Human rights and the return of cultural property - (Shea Esterling)
  • International legal regimes for the control of weaponary - (Mick John Hopkins)
  • The role of the Lex Mercatoria in arbitration - (Sitki Tellioglu)
  • War rape and forced marriage in conflict situations (Hannah Baumeister)
  • The emergence of new States and the criteria of statehood under international law (Carrie Fox)


My research has spanned areas of European and International Law, Criminal Jurisprudence, Penal Theory, the History of Crime and the Penal System, and the Protection of Human Rights.

More recently my research has been especially concerned with evolving legal structures and paradigms at the European and international levels, with particular reference to the regulation of crime and delinquency. This has led me into detailed research into the regulation of business cartels and other forms of delinquent organisation, issues of legal form and personality at the supranational level, and the theoretical underpinning of human rights argumentation (for instance the European Legal Atlas and L'Uomo Delinquente).

I have recently prepared a second edition of Regulating Cartels in Europe, with Julian Joshua, for Oxford University Press (published at the end of 2010). I am at present collaborating on a study of European Union penal competence with Estella Baker of the University of Sheffield (to be published as a monograph by Palgrave Macmillan), while continuing also research into cartel criminality (a book to be published by Ashgate Publishing) and criminal responsibility in the context of organisations.

I have also been awarded a grant from the Leverhulme Trust, for a period of two years from October 2012, to carry out research into the deterrent effect of anti-cartel measures. The project is titled Explaining and Understanding Business Cartel Collusion , and its main objective will be to produce a number of 'cartel biographies', drawing upon the experience of dealing with some major cartels in a number of jurisdictions over the past 30 years, as a way of assessing the impact of legal sanctions applied to companies and individuals in actual cases.


Economic freedom and economic rights: Direction, significance and ideologyHarding, C. 2018 In : European Law Journal.24, 1, p. 21-3515 p.
The search for evidence relating to the application and impact of EU legislation: Probing the national experienceHarding, C. & Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. 2017 (Accepted/In press) EU Criminal Justice Policy and Practice: Reflections and Prospects. Ouwerkerk, J., Oberg, J., Altena, J., Miettinen, S. & Sumoninen, A. (eds.). Netherlands: Brill, 21 p.
The Role of Whistleblowing and Leniency in Detecting and Preventing Economic and Financial Crime: A game of Give and TakeHarding, C. 2017 Challenges in the Field of Economic and Financial Crime in Europe and the U.S.. Katalin, L. & Franssen, V. (eds.). Hart Publishing, p. 95-11520 p. 5. (Hart Studies in European Criminal Law)
Sanction Accumulation in the context of business offending: The Full Force of the Law ?Harding, C. 2017 In : European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice.25, 2, p. 163-18726 p.
Protection of Property versus Protection of Commercial Transactions in French and English LawHarding, C. & Rowell, M. S. 2016 Transfer of Property and Private International Law. Carruthers, J. M. (ed.). 1 ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Vol. 1, 9. (Private International Law)
Cartel Biographies: The researcher as story-teller and the preservation of the research wilderness on the inside of the subjectHarding, C. 2016 Reflexivity and Criminal Justice: Intersections of Policy, Practice, and Research. Blaustein, J., Armstrong, S. & Henry, A. (eds.). 1 ed.Springer Nature, p. 265-28823 p.
EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles and MethodsHarding, C. (ed.) & Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. (ed.) 2016 London: Taylor & Francis. 261 p. (Routledge Research in EU Law)
EU criminal law: National boundaries and the european penal rainbowHarding, C. & Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. 2016 EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles, and Methods. Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. & Harding, C. (eds.). London: Taylor & Francis, p. 37-5518 p. 4. (Routledge Research in EU Law)
Tasks for criminology in the field of EU criminal law and crime policyHarding, C. 2016 EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles, and Methods. Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. & Harding, C. (eds.). London: Taylor & Francis, p. 111-12414 p. 8. (Routledge Research in EU Law)
EU Criminal Law as an Emergent Regime: Editorial IntroductionBanach-Gutierrez, J. B. & Harding, C. 2016 EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles and Methods. Harding, C. & Banach-Gutierrez, J. B. (eds.). London: Taylor & Francis, p. 1-77 p. 1. (Routledge Research in EU Law)
The relationship between EU criminal law and competition lawHarding, C. 2016 Research Handbook on EU Criminal Law. Mitsilegas, V., Bergstrom, M. & Konstadinides, T. (eds.). 1 ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 249-27122 p. Chapter 12. (Research Handbooks in European Law)
The European Union and Penal Competence: A Study of Evolving GovernanceBaker, E. & Harding, C. 2016 1st ed.Springer Nature. 256 p. (Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics)
EU Criminal Law under the Area of Freedom, Security and JusticeHarding, C. 2015 The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law. Arnull, A. & Chalmers, D. (eds.). 1 ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 837-86630 p. Chapter 32. (Oxford Handbooks in Law)
Cartel Criminality: The Mythology and Pathology of Business CollusionHarding, C. & Edwards, J. 2015 1 ed. Farnham: Taylor & Francis. 253 p.
Leniency and Criminal Sanctions in Anti-Cartel Enforcement: Happily Married or Uneasy Bedfellows?Harding, C., Beaton-Wells, C. & Edwards, J. 2015 Anti-Cartel Enforcement in a Contemporary Age: Leniency Religion.1 ed. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 30 p. (Hart Studies in Competition Law)
Game-playing and understanding decision-making within legal frameworks: the use of computerised simulationHarding, C., Garrett, S. M. & Wang, S. 2015 In : Information and Communications Technology Law.p. 1-1515 p.
The Interplay of Criminal and Administrative Law in the Context of Market Regulation: The Case of Serious Competition InfringementsHarding, C. 2015 Globalisation, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Theoretical, Comparative and Transnational Perspectives. Mitsilegas, V., Alldridge, P. & Cheliotis, L. (eds.). 1 ed. Oxford: Hart Publishing, p. 199-21820 p. Chapter 9
Representations of Governance in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe: The Iconography and Dramatic Presentation of the Sovereign RulerHarding, C. S. P. & Harding, N. 2013 In : Law and Humanities.7, 2, p. 170-192
Cartel Biographies: Explaining and Understanding Business Cartel CollusionHarding, C. S. P. & Edwards, J. 2013
Fundamental Rights in European Criminal Justice: An Axiological PerspectiveHarding, C., Beata, J. & Banach-Gutierrez, D. J. 2012 In : European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice.20, p. 239-26425 p.
The Emergent EU Criminal Policy: Identifying the SpeciesHarding, C. S. P. & Banach-Gutierrez, J. 2012 In : European Law Review.37, 6, p. 758-77013 p.
Hard Core Conduct as Crime: the justification for criminalisation in the European contextHarding, C. S. P. 2012 In : New Journal of European Criminal Law.3, p. 138-15214 p.
The Anti-cartel Enforcement Industry: Criminological Perspectives on Cartel CriminalisationHarding, C. S. P. 2011 Criminalising Cartels: A critical interdisciplinary study of an international regulatory movement. Beaton-Wells, C. & Ezrachi, A. (eds.). Hart Publishing
Cartel Deterrence: The Search for Evidence and ArgumentHarding, C. 2011 In : Antitrust Bulletin.56, 2, p. 345-37632 p.
Regulating Cartels in EuropeHarding, C. & Joshua, J. 2010 2 ed.Oxford University Press. 440 p. (Oxford Studies in European Law)
A Pathology of Business Cartels: Original Sin or The Child of Regulation?Harding, C. 2010 In : New Journal of European Criminal Law.44, 1, p. 44-5815 p.
Capturing the Cartel's Friends: Cartel Facilitation and the Idea of Joint Criminal EnterpriseHarding, C. 2009 In : European Law Review.34, 2, p. 298-30912 p.
From past imperfect to future perfect? A longitudinal study of the third pillarBaker, E. & Harding, C. 2009 In : European Law Review.34, 1, p. 25-5430 p.
Human Rights in the Market Place: The Exploitation of Rights Protection by Economic ActorsHarding, C., Kohl, U. & Salmon, N. 2008 Taylor & Francis.
Criminal Enterprise: Individuals, Organisations and Criminal ResponsibilityHarding, C. 2007 Willan Publishing. 304 p.
Who Designed the Westphalian System? Probing the Epistemology of the Westphalian Debates: 'Moses was but a juggler and King James the new Solomon'Harding, C. & Harding, N. 2006 In : Law, Culture and the Humanities.2, 3, p. 399-41921 p.
Business Collusion as a Criminological Phenomenon: Exploring the Global Criminalisation of Business CartelsHarding, C. 2006 In : Critical Criminology.14, 2, p. 181-20525 p.
VINGT ANS APRÈS: Rainbow Warrior, Legal Ordering, and Legal ComplexityHarding, C. 2006 In : The Singapore Yearbook of International Law.p. 99-11618 p.
Why Go to Court in Europe? An analysis of Cartel Appeals, 1995-2004Gibbs, A. & Harding, C. 2005 In : European Law Review.3, p. 349-37022 p.
Forging the European Cartel Offence: The Supranational Regulation of Business ConspiracyHarding, C. 2004 In : European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice.12, 4, p. 275-30026 p.
Legal Provision in the Rural Environment: Legal Services, Criminal Justice and Welfare Provision in Rural AreasHarding, C. (ed.) & Williams, J. (ed.) 1994 Cardiff: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru | University of Wales Press. 152 p.
Legal Education: Outreach to the Professions and the CommunityWilliams, J., Harding, C. & Ireland, R. 1988 In : Law Librarian.19, 1, p. 2731 p.