Module Identifier BS22120  
Academic Year 2000/2001  
Co-ordinator Dr Glynis Giddings  
Semester Semester 1  
Other staff Dr Simon Creasey, Dr Roy Goodacre  
Pre-Requisite BS10510  
Course delivery Lecture   30 Hours  
  Workshop   9 Hours (3 x 3 hours)  
Assessment Exam   3 Hours On 3-hour theory paper   70%  
  Course work   Three course work assignments   30%  
  Resit assessment   One 3-hour theory paper (plus resubmission of failed coursework or an alternative)    

Aims and objectives
To provide the theoretical background for understanding the modern theories of evolution, including at the molecular level. To inform of the genetic basis of evolution, and the way in which molecular techniques can be used to explore evolutionary relationships, including the use of molecular clocks. To motivate students, for example, by making them aware of how evolution has shaped human populations.

The course starts with an introductory lecture, including a brief revision of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and its relationship to evolution. There will be a workshop to explore the basic principles of population genetics.

The units of selection will be discussed with reference to selfish DNA, group selection, and epigenetic inheritance. The relationship between fitness and selection will be covered, with reference to experiments that demonstrate evolution in vitro. Consideration will be given to question of why organisms do not evolve to be perfect, and why in the modern world we might expect to see maladaptation rather frequently.

The use of molecular clocks will be considered in some detail, including to trace the evolution of the AIDS virus, primates, and humans. One of the workshops will be on molecular clocks and ancestry. Molecular tools will be described for the measurement of evolution and for the screening of biodiversity among animal, plant and microbial populations. Various nucleic acid techniques will be described, including the sequencing of small sub unit ribosomal RNA, the measurement of various DNA polymorphisms via restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and the polymerase chain reaction based methods of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA’s, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and microsatellites. Rudimentary analysis of data will also be covered.
The effects of genetic drift will be considered, including its importance to conservation. The importance of the founder effect, and inbreeding will be demonstrated using examples of human populations. Simple models of migration will be examined in both a lecture and in a workshop.

There will be a lecture and video on the evolution of sex. This will include a presentation of the arguments about why there are often only two sexes in higher vertebrates. There will be an introduction to game theory and its use in exploring the evolution of animal behaviour. This will include the evolution of animal aggression. The workshop on game theory will explore the evolution of co-operation and cheating.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this module students should appreciate

Reading Lists
** Recommended Text
Patterson, C.. (1998) Evolution.. 2nd. Natural History Museum.
Dawkins, R.. (1982) The extended phenotype.. Oxford University Press.
Hartl, D.L.. (1988) A primer of population genetcs. Sinauer Associates, Inc. USA.
Avise,. (1994) Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. Chapman & Hall.
Snustad, D.P., Simmons, M.J. & Jenkins, J.B.. (1997) Principles of genetics. John Wiley & Sons.