Module Identifier BS33310  
Academic Year 2000/2001  
Co-ordinator Dr John Scullion  
Semester Semester 2  
Other staff Professor William Adams  
Course delivery Lecture   20 Hours  
  Workshop   3 Hours 3 x 3 hour workshops  
  Field Work   3 Hours 1 x 4 hours  
Assessment Exam   2 Hours   70%  
  Field visit / case study     30%  
  Resit assessment   2 Hours One 2-hour written examination (plus resubmission of failed coursework or an alternative)    

Aims and objectives
The module consists of an integrated series of lectures, case studies and a field trip covering the main examples of land degradation and contamination resulting from industrial, mining and civil engineering activities. It describes the sources of these environmental problems, their consequences and the scientific basis of reclamation and remediation to sustainable, 'soft' end-uses.

The lecture course begins with a review of the extent of rehabilitation need in the UK, of the varying objectives for differing end use, of approaches to site assessment and investigation, and of differing national approaches to contaminated land issues. It then deals with the problems associated with particular types of land and provides an understanding of the science underlying their alleviation.

A number of specific topics are considered. The causes of extreme pH are investigated and mitigation measures explained. Hazards associated with the behaviour of metals and organic contaminants are described. Engineering and clean-up approaches to alleviating these hazards are then reviewed. Finally, the management of physically degraded and nutrient deficient soils is considered. Rehabilitation to agriculture, amenity and woodland is described in terms of reclamation and subsequent management. The special problems associated with landfill sites and with conservation end-uses are also considered.

A field visit illustrates examples of particular rehabilitation problems or approaches. Workshops use case studies in order to demonstrate the practical and economic constraints that influence the selection of rehabilitation option.

Learning outcomes
Students completing the module should

Reading Lists
Alexander,M. (1994) Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press.
Alloway,BJ. (1990) Heavy metals in soils. Blackie, Glasgow.
Bradshaw,AD & Chadwick,MJ. (1980) The restoration of land. Blackwell, Oxford.
Cairney,T. (1993) Contaminated land.Problems and solutions. Blackie Academic & Professional.
Cairney,T. (1995) The re-use of contaminated land.A handbook of Risk Assessment. Wiley.
Chadwick,MJ & Goodman,GT. (1975) The ecology of resource degradation and renewal. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Richards,IG, Palmer,JP & Barrett,PA. (1993) The reclamation of former coal mines and steelworks. Elsevier.
Scullion,J. (1994) Restoring farmland after coal. British Coal, Mansfield.