|Module Title||MINERAL DEPOSITS|
|Co-ordinator||Dr Ron Fuge|
|Other staff||Dr Robert Whittington|
|Course delivery||Lecture||22 Hours 11 x 2 hours|
|Practicals / Field Days||May include one field day.|
|Assessment||Exam||2 Hours Written exam||67%|
|Combined||Continuous assessment/ field trip report.||33%|
|Resit assessment||Resit: will comprise a 2 hour written examination. Marks from continuous assessment/ field trip report are carried forward.|
Module Outline (Lecture Themes)
The course is strongly based on geochemistry.
1. General introduction and classification of mineral deposits on basis of genesis and association.
2. Controls on localisation of mineralisation:
Stratigraphic - importance of geological age on distribution of mineral deposits.
Lithological - associations of various types of mineral deposits with different rock types. The role of host rock chemistry in mineral emplacement.
Structural - controls on a local and global scale.
Use of ore mineral occurrences in the UK to illustrate. With world examples to back up.
3. Mineral deposits associated with igneous processes:
Crystallisation and settling - chromite, magnetite, etc.
Liquation - sulphides in basic/ultrabasic bodies.
Late stage processes - pegmatitic rocks.
Element behaviour in melts, importance in the generation of igneous derived mineral deposits.
4. Mineral deposits associated with hydrothermal activity.
Source of water - isotopic studies, etc.
Transport of metals in solution - fluid inclusion studies, complex formation etc.
Wall rock alteration.
Particular examples include porphyry coppers and epithermal gold deposits.
5. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary processes.
Residual, untransported deposits - laterites and bauxites.
Residual, transported deposits - placers such gold and uranium.
Soluble components, role of Eh and pH on precipitation and localisation of deposits such as uranium, manganese and iron.
6. Role of geochemical exploration, with geophysical back up, in the search for mineral deposits.
7. Geophysical exploration: An introduction to geophysical methods of exploration for, and exploitation of, mineral deposits.
A. Electrical methods. Ohmic and electrolytic conduction: resistance and resistivity: rock resistivity: current flow in the ground: electrode configurations: vertical electrical sounding: constant separation traversing.
B. Self potential. Origins of self potentials: self potential surveying.
C. Induced Polarisation. The DC and AC induced polarisation effects: sources of induced polarisation: time domain IP surveying: Chargeability: frequency domain IP surveying: pseudo sections of frequency effects and metal factors and apparent resistivity.
D. Electro-Magnetic. Induction in a subsurface conductor: amplitude and phase relationships: the AFMAG method: VLF and the moving coils method: the fixed source method.
E. Magnetic. Acromagnetic surveying and interpretation.
To give a broad outline of the genesis of mineral deposits, based strongly on geochemical controls. To reinforce the methods and use of geochemical exploration. To introduce the student to the most commonly used methods of geophysical exploration for mineral deposits.
Module objectives / Learning outcomes
The student should develop a knowledge of the main processes by which mineral deposits form and the role of various geochemical parameters in them. The student should obtain a knowledge of where to look for mineral deposits. The student should develop skills in interpreting data to locate mineral deposits.
Parasnis, D.S.. Principles of Applied Geophysics. 5th Edition.. Chapman & Hall.
Reynolds, J. M.. (1997) An introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics. Wiley