Module Identifier GG34110  
Module Title ICE AND SNOW: WATER QUALITY AND HYDROLOGY  
Academic Year 2000/2001  
Co-ordinator Dr Giles Brown  
Semester Semester 2  
Course delivery Lecture   20 Hours 10 x 2 hours  
Assessment Exam   2 Hours Unseen written examination. Answer two questions from four.   100%  
  Resit assessment   2 Hours Unseen written examination. Answer two questions from four.   100%  

Module Outline (Lecture Themes)
1. Introduction

2. Snow Processes
(i) Sources of atmospheric solute
(ii) Formation of snow
(iii) Microscale influences on snow chemistry
(iv) Macroscale influences on snow chemistry
(v) Location of solute within snowpack
(vi) Controls on the composition of snowmelt
(vii) Impact on surface water quality

3. Glacial Processes
(i) Runoff Magnitude/Timing (glacial vs. nival)
(ii) Glacier Hydrochemistry I (sources of solute, subglacial chemical weathering environments)
(iii) Glacier Hydrochemistry II (meltwater quality data, implications for CO2 drawdown of glacial-interglacial timescales)
(iv) Suspended Sediment (sources, magnitude, delivery)

4. Water Resources in Mountainous regions
(i) HEP (discharge regimes, problems of sediment). Importance of water supply from mountainous regions. Implications (dams, flooding).

NOTE: some topics will take only part of a single lecture, others more than one lecture.

Module Aims
The module aims to provide a detailed understanding of hydrological and geochemical processes operating in glacial and nival catchments.

Module objectives / Learning outcomes
On completing the module, students will understand (i) the links between sources of solute and processes of solute acquistion, (ii) processes and timing of meltwater and solute delivery, and (iii) implications and applied aspects of meltwater quality and quantity.

Reading Lists
Books
Gray, D.M. and D.H. Male. (1981) Handbook of Snow: Principles, Processes, Management & Use. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 776pp, (pbk). ISBN 0-08-025374-1
Jones, H.G., J.W. Pomeroy, D.A. Walker and R.W. Hollam. (2001) Snow Ecology. C.U.P., Cambridge, 398pp. ISBN 0-52-158483-3
Sharp, M., K.S. Richards and M. Tranter. (1998) Glacier Hydrology and Hydrochemistry. Wiley, Chichester, 342pp. ISBN 0-471-98168-0

Articles
Bezinge, A.. (1987) Glacial meltwater streams, hydrology and sediment tranport: the case of Grande Dixence hydroelectricity scheme, in Gurnell, A.M. and M.J. Clark (eds.), Glaciofluvial sediment transfer - An Alpine perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 473-498.
Rasswell, R.. (1984) Chemical models of solute acquisition in glacial meltwaters. Journal of Glaciology 30, 407-57.
Brown, G.H.. (in press) Glacier Hydrochemistry. Applied Geochemistry
Gurnell, A.M.. (1987) 'Suspended sediment'; pages 305-354 in: Gurnell, A.M. and M.J. Clark (eds.), Glaciofluvial sediment transfer - An Alpine perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester
Tranter, M., G.H. Brown, R. Raiswell, M. Sharp and A.M. Gurnell. (1993) A conceptual model of solute acquisition by alpine glacial meltwaters. Journal of Glaciology, 39, 573-581