Module Identifier HY12420  
Academic Year 2000/2001  
Co-ordinator Dr Jeffrey Davies  
Semester Semester 2  
Course delivery Lecture   18 Hours  
  Seminar   5 Hours  
Assessment Exam   2 Hours   60%  
  Essay   2 x 2,500 word essays   40%  

Module description
They had no written history, not even a written language of their own, no dominant city-state to impose order and unity, no clear-cut boundaries. In the period c.700-400 BC Celtic tribes under the leadership of wealthy chieftains became the suppliers of raw materials in response to the demands of the classical world. Permanent defensive sites were found in Celtic lands and the rudiments of 'civilized' life took shape. Their skills and resources were many, horsemanship, mastery in carpentry and metalworking. Their ingenuity gave them some control over a harsh environment and allowed for impressive cultural developments. They traded with the cultivated Mediterranean cities, accumulated surplus wealth, built stronger fortress-towns and imposing tombs for their leaders. Towards c. 4000 BC this established order collapsed and large sections of the population dispersed, to collide fatally with Rome. By c. 200 BC the period of Migration was effectively at an end and Celtic Society readjusted to a more organised sedentary life-style - highly urbanised and enjoying a further brilliant flowering before being overrun by Rome. The course will examine this world of the ancient Celts in detail. Topics for consideration will include the problem of 'Celticisation', cultural change, society and economy. Students will gain an insight into the ways in which the discipline of archaeology contributes to the study of a proto-historical period. Special attention will be paid to the archaeology of the British Isles in the period 1000 BC - AD 43.

Learning outcomes
Students will have:
- command over a body of archaeological and historical knowledge within the field of later prehistoric European studies, focussing upon the `problem' of the Celts.
- an understanding of a variety of approaches, literary and archaeological, in the interpretation of the period, with special reference to the British Isles.
- an ability to develop and sustain quasi-historical arguments.
- an ability to work independently and to participate in group discussions.

Reading Lists
** Recommended Text
B Cunliffe. (1997) The Ancient Celts.
M J Green (ed). (1995) The Celtic World.