Module Identifier RS20410  
Academic Year 2000/2001  
Co-ordinator Dr David Wilman  
Semester Semester 1  
Mutually Exclusive RS21110  
Assessment Exam   2 Hours   100%  

Aims of the module
To provide students with a sound, basic understanding of the principles and practice of grassland management and forage conservation, with particular reference to UK conditions.

Learning outcomes
On completion of the module, students will be able to:

i. Describe range and distribution of grassland

ii. Describe grass species and varieties and methods of pasture improvement

iii. Describe grass nutrient requirements

iv. Describe principles and systems of grazing

v. Describe principles and systems of conservation

Syllabus / Curriculum design
The course covers the main points which should be considered when managing grassland and when conserving forage. The emphasis is on agricultural rather than amenity swards.

Topics covered include the following: area, output and types of grassland; temporary vs permanent; species, variety, seeds mixtures, methods of sowing; plant nutrient supply, particularly N, and nutrient cycling; effects of frequency, timing, severity and selectivity of defoliation on herbage yield and quality, botanical composition and sward density; treading, poaching, compaction, soil ingestion; integration of grazing and cutting; grazing methods; reasons for forage conservation and factors affecting the choice of method; silage - the process, losses, type of crop, stage of growth, manuring, harvesting, wilting, chopping, additives, types of silo; hay - the process, losses, type of crop, stage of growth, manuring, harvesting and storage, barn drying, additives; artificial drying; fractionation; mechanisation.

Reading Lists
HODGSON, J.. (1990) Grazing management.
HOPKINS A (ed). (2000) Grass: its production and utilisation. 3rd.
NASH M. (1985) Chapter 2 "Grass and grassland products" in Crop conservation and storage. 2nd.
FRAME J. (1992) Improved grassland management.

Grass Farmer. British Grassland Society