Module Identifier HY37030  
Academic Year 2003/2004  
Co-ordinator Dr Robert G Hughes  
Semester Semester 2  
Mutually Exclusive IP 36020, HY 37120  
Course delivery Lecture   18 Hours Timetabled with HY 37120  
  Seminars / Tutorials   10 Hours  
Assessment TypeAssessment Length/DetailsProportion
Semester Assessment 1 X 2,500 WORD ESSAY (14%), 1 X 4,000 WORD ESSAY (26%)  40%

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module, students should be able to:
Describe and assess the impact of the CIA on the US body politic in the period;

Identify and explain changes in the `National Security state? in modern America;

Locate the development of the CIA within the broader themes of US foreign policy;

Discuss with increasing confidence historiographical arguments through written and oral means;

Analyse with further sophistication primary source material (of which there is a vast amount) in a critical and intelligent manner.

Brief description

This module, on the CIA between its inception in 1947 and the end of the Cold War, will examine the problematic relationship between democracy and its `shield? - secret intelligence. A major theme will involve an examination of the controversial ? and ambiguous - relationship between these two historically. In focusing on the United States and its intelligence arm, the CIA, this module seeks to understand how this has developed in the world?s most powerful democracy. Students will be introduced to some of the main experiences of American society in the period studied with particular attention paid to the manner in which American democracy has accommodated the peacetime existence of a secret intelligence organization, the CIA. The interaction of domestic US politics and the global role of the USA after 1945 will also be considered. Special consideration will be given to overseas areas of intense CIA activity such as Latin America.


The development of, and operations of, the CIA since 1947 illuminates broad areas of US foreign policy, American attitudes as well as raising ethical, moral and political questions. Further, the history of the CIA tells us much about the development of the US body politic since the end of `isolationism?. This module will address the question of how, and in what manner, an intelligence agency can function in a democracy.


1. Introduction.
2. Espionage in US history: Benedict Arnold to Pinkerton to Pearl Harbor.
3. The genesis of the CIA: `Wild? Bill Donovan and the OSS.
4. The birth of the CIA: the National Security Act.
5. The Truman years: the CIA and `Containment?.
6. Security at home: the FBI, Communism and subversion.
7. Covert operations and subversion: the CIA and `unfriendly? regimes.
8. The CIA, the `bomber gap?, the `missile gap? and technology.
9. Cuba : Castro, Operation Mongoose the Missile Crisis.
10. The CIA and the Cold War in Latin America.
11. The widening Cold War: fighting Communism in the Third World.
12. Vietnam I: the CIA and South East Asia.
13. Vietnam II: Beyond the pale? The CIA and the Phoenix Programme.
14. Out of control? The CIA by 1973.
15. A new accountability: Pike and Church to Jimmy Carter.
16. `Fighting Communism?: Reagan and the CIA in the 1980s.
17. The CIA and the end of the Cold War.
18. End of a mission? After the Cold War: new enemies, new opportunities.

Reading Lists

** Recommended Text
Aldrich, Richard J (2001) The hidden hand: Britain, America and Cold War secret intelligence
Andrew, Christopher (1996) For the President?s eyes only: Secret Intelligence end the American Presidency from Washington to Bush
Breckinridge (1993) The CIA and the Cold War
Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri (2002) Cloak and Dollar: A history of American Secret Intelligence
** Recommended Background
Agee, Philip (1975) Inside the company: CIA diary
Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri (1989) The CIA and American democracy
Knott, S (1993) Secret and Sanctioned: Covert Operations and the American Presidency
Murphy, D.E., Kondrashev, S.A. & Bailey, G. (1997) Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War
Rudgers, D (2000) Creating the secret state: the origins of the CIA
Saunders, F.S (1999) Who paid the piper: the CIA and the cultural Cold War
Richelson, J. (1995) A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the twentieth century
Lefever, Ernest W. & Godson, Roy (1979) CIA and the American ethic: an unfinished debate
Johnson, Loch K (1989) America's secret power: the CIA in a democratic society
Foley, M., & Owens, J.E (1997) Congress and the presidency : institutional politics in a separated system
Andrew, Christopher & Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri (1997) Eternal vigilance? 50 years of the CIA
Foley, M (1989) Mumbling across the branches: Iran-Contra, the Borland Amendments and the American foreign policy making process

Web Page/Sites
** Essential Reading


This module is at CQFW Level 6