Module Identifier 
PH33510 
Module Title 
CRYSTALLINE SOLID STATE PHYSICS 
Academic Year 
2003/2004 
Coordinator 
Dr Rudolf Winter 
Semester 
Semester 1 
Other staff 
Professor Geraint Vaughan 
PreRequisite 
PH21510 , PH22010 , PH23010 
Course delivery 
Lecture  20 lectures 

Seminars / Tutorials  2 workshops 
Assessment 
Assessment Type  Assessment Length/Details  Proportion 
Semester Exam  3 Hours End of semester examinations  80% 
Semester Assessment  Course Work: Assessed homework Deadline (by week of Semester): Week 6  10% 
Semester Assessment  Course Work: Assessed homework Deadline (by week of Semester): Week 11  10% 

Learning outcomes
After taking this module students should be able to:

describe the experimental basics of crystal structure determination

understand the concept of translational invariance and point symmetry of crystals

determine the reciprocal lattice from the real space lattice for cubic structures and appreciate the importance of unit cells in each case

understand the origins of atomic vibrations and thermal properties

distinguish acoustic from optical modes at edges of the Brilllouin zone

understand electronic energy bands and the relevance of the Fermi level for distinguishing metals from insulators and of the Fermi surface in describing the electrical and optical properties of metals

describe the different types of magnetism and the role of the exchange interaction in distinguishing these

understand the basis and application of the spin resonance techniques ESR and NMR

appreciate the critical temperature and magnetic field constraints of superconductivity and the notion of flux quantisation and quantum interference

describe the essential differences between Low Tc and High Tc superconductors
Brief description
The physics of crystalline materials has had a major impact on present day society. Semiconductors, metals and magnetic materials have all found particular use in microcomputers, displays and telecommunications. This module on crystalline solid state physics falls into three main sections. The fist lays the ground work and introduces the main concepts used in crystallography viz. atomic structure, reciprocal space, translational invariance and scattering. The second deals with the vibrational and electronic structure and the way these relate to the atomic structure and form the basis for our understanding of thermal, electrical and optical properties of crystalline materials. The third part extends these ideas further to include the properties of metals, magnetic materials and superconductors.
Content
PROBING THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS
Bragg's Law and Wavenumber. Laue, Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction. Pros and cons of Xrays, neutrinos and electrons as probes of periodic structures.
3 DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS
Crystal lattice, Unit Cell, Translational Invariance and Basis. Reciprocal Space. Scattering of a Plane Wave by a crystalline solid, Laue Conditions and Bragg's Law. Miller Indices, Crystal Planes and Stereograms. Bravais lattices and common cubic structures. WignerSeitz Cells and Brillouin Zones for cubic structures. Structure Factor, Atomic Form Factor and Crystallography.
VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
Atomic Vibrations, Phonons, BoseEinstein statistics. Experimental probes  inelastic neutron and light Scattering. Dispersion Relations for a monatomic lattice. Phonon Modes within the Brillouin Zone. Diatomic lattice, optic and acoustic modes, Raman and Brillouin Scattering. Vibrational Density of States and Debye Model versus spectra for cubic structures.
ELECTRONIC BAND THEORY
Free electron gas, Electronic Density of States, FermiDirac statistics and transport in simple cubic metals. Nearly Free Electron Model, Band Structure, Metals and Insulators. Fermi Surface of cubic metals and its measurement (De Haasvan Alphen Effect). Optical and Electrical properties of Metals.
MAGNETISM
Magnetisation, susceptibility and diamagnetism. Permanent electronic dipoles, paramagnetism and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Ideal magnetic gas and CurieWeiss Law. Exchange interaction, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism. Nuclear dipoles and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
Tc and Bc and the Meissner Effect. Type I and Type II superconductors. London Equation. Phonon exchange, Cooper pairs and superconductivity energy gaps. Flux quantisation and Josephson Effect, quantum interference and SQUIDS. Metal oxide High Tc superconductors.
Reading Lists
Books
** Recommended Text
HP Myers Introductory Solid State Physics
Taylor & Francis
** Supplementary Text
SR Elliott The Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Wiley
Notes
This module is at CQFW Level 6