Module Identifier BS12810  
Module Title CELL BIOLOGY 2  
Academic Year 2004/2005  
Co-ordinator Dr Mustak A Kaderbhai  
Semester Semester 2  
Other staff Dr Aileen R Smith, Dr David J Hopper, Dr Mustak A Kaderbhai  
Pre-Requisite Normally an A-level in Chemistry or BS11910 (Introductory Chemistry).  
Co-Requisite BS10910  
Course delivery Lecture   20 Hours 20 x 1 hour lectures  
  Practical   3 Hours 1 x 3 hours  
Assessment TypeAssessment Length/DetailsProportion
Semester Exam2 Hours WRITTEN PAPER  70%
Semester Assessment PRACTICAL  30%
Supplementary Exam2 Hours WRITTEN PAPER  70%

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module students should be able to:
Demonstrate an understanding the relationships of free energy changes to biochemical reactions.

Discuss the functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the production of ATP to harness energy in the ATP cycle.

Demonstrate knowledge of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids in biological systems.

Demonstrate a knowledge of biosynthesis of carbohydrates, by gluconeogenesis and photosynthesis, and of fatty acids.

Demonstrate an understanding of the role of the citric acid cycle in catabolism and as a provider of biosynthetic intermediates.


This module arises from the split into two 10-credit modules of the current 20-credit module on Cell Structure, Metabolism and Function that currently is the core for all degree schemes in Biological Sciences. It will concentrate on the major energy converting systems in living organisms serving to synthesise ATP, namely photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration, and the ways by which the chemical energy in nutrients is provided for use by the cell. Any accreditation of the Biochemistry degree by the Biochemical Society would require this module.

Brief description

The module will provide, via a series of integrated lectures and practicals, an understanding of the energy harnessing aspects of bioenergetics in general and its particular relevance to cells. It will emphasise the importance of ATP and its cycle as one energy currency of the cell with attention to ion currents as the other. In the necessary multifaceted approach, the module will explain the mechanisms of the production of ATP by photosynthesis and by the oxidation of the organic compounds that are the products of photosynthesis. Equally, it will deal with the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids and the important role of the mitochondrion and its ion current in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. For the complete picture, it will also be necessary to cover essential aspects of biosynthesis of these compounds.


Topics include:

Free energy changes in biochemical systems.
The central role of the ATP cycle in cellular metabolism.
The reactions of glycolysis.
Oxidation of fatty acids.
The formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate.
Oxidation of acetylCoA by the citric acid cycle.
The reoxidation of NADH by the mitochondrial electron transport system.
Oxidative phosphorylation via chemiosmosis in the mitochondrion.
The role of the citric acid cycle as a provider of biosynthetic intermediates and links with amino acid synthesis and degradation.
Photosynthesis and the structure of chloroplasts in C3 and C4 plants.
Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.

Reading Lists

Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L. & Stryer, L (2001) Biochemistry 5. W. H. Freeman and Co. New York.


This module is at CQFW Level 4