|| PH32620 |
|| FROM MOLECULES TO ELEMENTARY PARTICLES |
|| 2004/2005 |
|| Dr Tudor E Jenkins |
|| Semester 2 (Taught over 2 semesters) |
|| Professor Keith Birkinshaw, Dr Xing Li |
|| PH14020 , PH23520 , PH26020 |
|| None |
| Course delivery
|| Lecture || 36 Hours x 1 hour lectures |
|| Seminars / Tutorials || 0 seminars, 4 tutorials |
|| Practical || None |
|Assessment Type||Assessment Length/Details||Proportion|
|Semester Assessment|| Course work, 4 example sheets ||20%|
|Semester Assessment|| Test, end of semester 1 ||20%|
|Semester Exam|| BSc 2 hours , MPhys 3 hours end of module exam ||60%|
Learning outcomesOn successful completion of this module students should be able to:
classify the states of single and multielectron atoms
perform vector addition of angular momentum using LS or jj coupling schemes
predict allowed transitions in atoms from selection rules
calculate electron energy level shifts in a magnetic field
predict the rotational and vibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules
describe the structure of nuclei
explain the stability of nuclei
identify the salient properties of elementary particles
summarise the experimental evidence underlying the Standard Model
The fundamental structure of matter, from molecules through atoms, nuclei to elementary particles is of fundamental importance to the understanding of nature and its interactions. at this stage in their course, students have a suffiient background knowledge of quantum theory to enable them to study modern theories of the structure of matter in depth.
This module will look at the structure of molecules, atoms, nuclei and elementary particles chiefly through the medium of spectroscopy. Theoretical models of these building blocks of matter will be developed and experimental techniques employed to investigate their structure will be discussed.
Spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom - gross, fine, and hyperfine structure. Orbital and spin angular momentum in hydrogen. Spin-orbit coupling. Many electron atoms - indistinguishability and the Pauli Exclusion Principle. LS and jj-coupling. Hund's rules.
Optical selection rules in atoms. Alkali and rare earth spectra. Helium and configuration interaction. Zeeman effect - space quantisation. Hyperfine structure - nuclear spin. Rydberg states.
Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Instrumentation.
The nucleus as a physical system; the nuclear energy well. Nuclear Coulomb repulsion energy. Beta decay process as an example of weak interactions. Mirror nuclei and charge symmetry of nuclear forces. Stability of nuclei and radioactive decay. Nuclear scattering experiments. Nuclear reactions. The "Fermi gas" and "Liquid Drop" models of nuclear matter. Structural properties of nuclei. The Shell Model of the nucleus. Symmetry, statistics and parity. Nuclear fission and fusion.
Historical development. The Standard Model, quarks and leptons. From quarks to hadrons. The fundamental forces of nature - electromagnetic, strong force and colour change, weak force and gravity. Probing elementary particles - linear and circular accelerators, particle detectors.
T.P. Softly Atomic Spectra
OUP ISBN 0-19-855688-8
W.S.C.Williams Nuclear and Particle Physics
Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-852046-8
B.R.Martin and G.Shaw Particle Physics
2nd Edition. Wiley ISBN 0-471-97252-5
C.N.Banwell and E.M.McCash Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy
4th Edition. McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-707976-0
This module is at CQFW Level 6