Prof Mike Young

Prof Mike Young

Emeritus Professor

Contact Details


Our laboratory studies post-exponential phase gene expression in several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus and Clostridium. Recent work on dormancy in Micrococcus luteus led to the discovery of the Rpf family of bacterial growth factors found throughout the actinobacteria (e.g. mycobacteria, streptomycetes). We are currently exploring the mechanism of actions of these secreted bacterial growth factors and their potential applications for TB protection and therapy.



Aubrey, W., Riley, M., Young, M., King, R.D., Oliver, S.G., Clare, A. 2015. A Tool for Multiple Targeted Genome Deletions that Is Precise, Scar-Free, and Suitable for Automation. PLoS One 10 (12) 0142494 10.1371/journal.pone.0142494 Cadair

Guyot, S., Gervais, P., Young, M., Winckler, P., Dumont, J., Davey, H. 2015. Surviving the heat: Heterogeneity of response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides insight into thermal damage to the membrane. Environmental Microbiology 17 (8) pp. 2982-2992. 10.1111/1462-2920.12866 Other Cadair


Shleeva, M., Goncharenko, A., Kudykina, Y., Young, D., Young, M., Kaprelyants, A.Tailleux, L. 2013. Cyclic Amp-Dependent Resuscitation of Dormant Mycobacteria by Exogenous Free Fatty Acids. PLoS One 8 (12) e82914 10.1371/journal.pone.0082914 Other Cadair

Riley, M.C., Aubrey, W., Young, M., Clare, A. 2013. PD5: a general purpose library for primer design software. PLoS One 8 (11) e80156 10.1371/journal.pone.0080156 Cadair

Burgarth, D., D'Alessandro, D., Hogben, L., Severini, S., Young, M. 2013. Zero Forcing, Linear and Quantum Controllability for Systems Evolving on Networks. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 58 (9) pp. 2349-2354. 10.1109/TAC.2013.2250075 Cadair

Bilsland, E., Sparkes, A.C., Williams, K.S., Moss, H.J., de Clare, M., Pir, P., Rowland, J., Aubrey, W., Pateman, R., Young, M., Carrington, M., King, R.D., Oliver, S.G. 2013. Yeast-based automated high-throughput screens to identify anti-parasitic lead compounds. Open Biology 3 (2) 120158 10.1098/rsob.120158 Other Cadair


Heap, J.P., Young, D.I., Dago, A.E., Minton, N.P., Hoch, J.A., Young, M., Steiner, E. 2011. Multiple orphan histidine kinases interact directly with Spo0A to control the initiation of endospore formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Molecular Microbiology 80 (3) pp. 641-654. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07608.x Cadair

Edwards, A., Anesio, A.M., Edwards Rassner, S.M., Sattler, B., Hubbard, B.P., Perkins, W.T., Young, M., Griffith, G.W. 2011. Possible interactions between bacterial diversity, microbial activity and supraglacial hydrology of cryoconite holes in Svalbard. ISME Journal 5 (1) pp. 150-160. 10.1038/ismej.2010.100 Cadair


Young, M., Artsatbanov, V., Beller, H.R., Chandra, G., Chater, K.F., Dover, L.G., Goh, E., Kahan, T., Kaprelyants, A.S., Kyrpides, N., Lapidus, A., Lowry, S.R., Lykidis, A., Mahillon, J., Markowitz, V., Mavromatis, K., Mukamolova, G.V., Oren, A., Rokem, J.S., Smith, M.C.M., Young, D.I., Greenblatt, C.L. 2010. Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free-living actinobacterium. Journal of Bacteriology 192 (3) pp. 841-860. 10.1128/JB.01254-09 Cadair

Koltunov, V., Greenblatt, C.L., Goncharenko, A.V., Demina, G.R., Klein, B.Y., Young, M., Kaprelyants, A.S. 2010. Structural changes and cellular localization of resuscitation promoting factor in environmental isolates of Micrococcus luteus. Microbial Ecology 59 (2) pp. 296-310. 10.1007/s00248-009-9573-1 Cadair Other

Sparkes, A.C., King, R.D., Aubrey, W., Benway, M., Byrne, E.L., Clare, A.J., Liakata, M., Markham, M., Whelan, K.E., Young, M., Rowland, J. 2010. An Integrated Laboratory Robotic System for Autonomous Discovery of Gene Function. Journal of The Association for Laboratory Automation 15 (1) pp. 33-40. 10.1016/j.jala.2009.10.001 Cadair

Sparkes, A.C., Aubrey, W., Byrne, E.L., Clare, A.J., Khan, M., Liakata, M., Markham, M., Rowland, J., Soldatova, L.N., Whelan, K.E., Young, M., King, R.D. 2010. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery. Automated Experimentation 2 (1) pp. 1759-4499. 10.1186/1759-4499-2-1 Cadair Other


Byrne, E.L., Liakata, M., Whelan, K.E., Oliver, S.G., Rowland, J.J., Aubrey, W., Soldatova, L.N., Sparkes, A.C., Young, M., Markham, M., Clare, A.J., Pir, P., King, R.D. 2009. Letters - Make way for robot scientists. Science 325 (5943) pp. p945. 10.1126/science.325_945a Cadair

King, R.D., Rowland, J.J., Aubrey, W., Liakata, M., Markham, M., Soldatova, L.N., Whelan, K.E., Clare, A.J., Young, M., Sparkes, A.C., Oliver, S., Pir, P. 2009. The Robot Scientist Adam. Computer 42 (8) pp. 46-54. 10.1109/MC.2009.270 Cadair Other

Thomas, H., Huang, L., Young, M., Ougham, H.J. 2009. Evolution of plant senescence. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9 (163) 163 10.1186/1471-2148-9-163 Cadair Other

Whitworth, D.E., Young, M., McEwan, N.R., Newbold, C.J.Smith, S.P., Spikes, K.J. 2009. Life with little oxygen: lessons from microbes. Other Cadair

King, R.D., Rowland, J.J., Oliver, S.G., Young, M., Aubrey, W., Byrne, E.L., Liakata, M., Markham, M., Pir, P., Soldatova, L.N., Sparkes, A.C., Whelan, K.E., Clare, A.J. 2009. The Automation of Science. Science 324 (5923) pp. 85-89. 10.1126/science.1165620 Cadair Other


McHugh, T.D., Davies, A.P., Young, M., Gillespie, S.H., Dhillon, A.P., Henderson, B. 2008. Resuscitation-promoting factors are expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human tissue. Tuberculosis 88 (5) pp. 462-468. Cadair Other

Kaprelyants, A.S., Kana, B.D., Young, M., Sung, N., Gordhan, B.G., Downing, K.J., Machowski, E., Tsenova, L., Vostroktunova, G., Kaplan, G. 2008. The resuscitation-promoting factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required for virulence and resuscitation from dormancy but are collectively dispensable for growth in situ. Molecular Microbiology 67 (3) pp. 672-684. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.06078.x Cadair Other


Machowski, E., Gordhan, B.G., Sung, N., Downing, K.J., Tsenova, L., Matsoso, L., Kaplan, G., Young, M., Kana, B.D., Mizrahi, V. 2007. The role of resuscitation promoting factors in the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cadair


Telkov, M.V., Demina, G.R., Voloshin, S.A., Salina, E.G., Dudik, T.V., Stekhanova, T.N., Mukamolova, G.V., Kazaryan, K.A., Goncharenko, A.V., Young, M., Kaprelyants, A.S. 2006. Proteins of the Rpf (resuscitation promoting factor) family are peptidoglycan hydrolases. Биохимия 71 (4) pp. 414-422. 10.1134/S0006297906040092 Cadair Other

Mukamolova, G.V., Murzin, A.G., Salina, E.G., Demina, G.R., Kell, D.B., Kaprelyants, A.S., Young, M. 2006. Muralytic activity of Micrococcus luteus Rpf and its relationship to physiological activity in promoting bacterial growth and resuscitation. Molecular Microbiology 59 (1) pp. 54-98. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04930.x Cadair


Downing, K.J., Mischenko, V.V., Shleeva, M.O., Young, D.I., Young, M., Kaprelyants, A.S., Apt, A.S., Mizrahi, V. 2005. Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacking three of the five rpf-like genes are defective for growth in vivo and for resuscitation in vitro. Infection and Immunity 73 (5) pp. 3038-3043. 10.1128/IAI.73.5.3038-3043.2005 Cadair

Ravagnani, A., Finan, C.L., Young, M. 2005. A novel firmicute protein family related to the actinobacterial resuscitation-promoting factors by non-orthologous domain displacement. BMC Genomics 6 pp. 39-52. 10.1186/1471-2164-6-39 Cadair Other

Young, M., Davis, I., Minton, N.P., Carter, G. 2005. Gene cloning in Clostridia. In P. Duerre. (ed) in: Handbook on Clostridia. (Eds)Duerre. Taylor & Francis pp. 37-52. Cadair Other

Mukamolova, G.V., Kaprelyants, A.S., Young, M. 2005. Mycobacterial dormancy and its relation to persistence. In T. Parish. (ed) Parish. Taylor & Francis pp. 265-320. Cadair Other


Young, M., Goodacre, R., Kassama, Y., Zhao, H.J., Kell, D.B. 2004. Differentiation of Micromonospora isolates from a coastal sediment in Wales on the basis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70 (11) pp. 6619-6627. 10.1128/AEM.70.11.6619-6627.2004 Cadair

Downing, K.J., McAdam, R.A., Kelly, F., Young, M., Betts, J.C., Young, D.I. 2004. Global expression profiling of strains harbouring null mutations reveals that the five rpf-like genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show functional redundancy. Tuberculosis pp. 3-4. Cadair Other

Goodacre, R., Mukamolova, G.V., Young, M., Kaprelyants, A.S., Zhao, H.J., Kell, D.B., Finan, C.L. 2004. Resuscitation of 'uncultured' microorganisms. In T. A. (ed) In. American Society for Microbiology pp. 100-108. Cadair Other

Williams, H.D., Shleeva, M., Mukamolova, G.V., Young, M. 2004. Formation of 'non-culturable' cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis in stationary phase in response to growth under sub-optimal conditions and their Rpf-mediated resuscitation. Microbiology pp. 1687-1697. 10.1099/mic.0.26893-0 Cadair


Mukamolova, G.V., Kaprelyants, A.S., Kell, D.B., Young, M. 2003. Adoption of the transiently non-culturable state - a bacterial survival strategy? In R. K. Poole. (ed) Advances in Microbial Physiology. Elsevier pp. 65-129. 10.1016/S0065-2911(03)47002-1 Cadair


Kaprelyants, A.S., Mukamolova, G.V., Young, M., Turapov, O.A., Telkov, M., Kazarian, K., Kell, D.B. 2002. The rpf gene of Micrococcus luteus encodes an essential secreted growth factor. Molecular Microbiology pp. 611-621. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03183.x Other Cadair

Kaprelyants, A.S., Mukamolova, G.V., Young, M., Turapov, O.A., Young, D.I., Kell, D.B. 2002. A family of autocrine growth factors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular Microbiology 46 (3) pp. 623-635. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03184.x Cadair

Young, M., Rogozinski, J., Marriott, S.A., Kaderbhai, M.A., Hopper, D.J. 2002. Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the gene for lupanine hydroxylase, a quinocytochrome c from a Pseudomonas sp. Biochemical Journal 367 pp. 483-489. 10.1042/BJ20020729 Other Cadair

Warkup, C.C., Jones, H.E., Young, M.J., Wolf, B.T., Lewis, R.M. 2002. Changes in muscularity with growth and its relationship with other carcass traits in three terminal sire breeds of sheep. Animal Science 74 (2) pp. 265-275. Cadair Other

Mukamolova, G.V., Telkov, M.V., Bagramyan, K., Young, M., Shleeva, M.O., Kaprelyants, A.S., Kell, D.B. 2002. Formation and resuscitation of 'non-culturable' cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in prolonged stationary phase. Microbiology pp. 1581-1591. Cadair Other

Young, M.J., Lewis, R.M., Jones, H.E., Wolf, B.T. 2002. The use of X-ray computer tomography for measuring the muscularity of live sheep. Animal Science pp. 387-399. Cadair Other


Gapes, J.R., Schuster, K.C., Goodacre, R., Young, M. 2001. Degeneration of solventogenic Clostridium strains monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of bacterial cells. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 27 (5) pp. 314-321. 10.1038/sj.jim.7000146 Cadair

Young, M., Kashket, S., Kashket, E.R., Liyanage, H. 2001. Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium difficile detoxify methylglyoxal by a novel mechanism involving glycerol dehydrogenase. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67 (5) pp. 2004-2010. 10.1128/AEM.67.5.2004-2010.2001 Cadair


Ravagnani, A., Jennert, K.C.B., Steiner, E., Grünberg, R., Jefferies, J.R., Wilkinson, S.R., Young, D., Tidswell, E.C., Brown, D.P., Youngman, P., Morris, J.G., Young, M. 2000. Spo0A directly controls the switch from acid to solvent production in solvent-forming clostridia. Molecular Microbiology 37 (5) pp. 1172-1185. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02071.x Cadair