Prof Christopher Harding BA (Oxon), LLM (Exon)

Prof Christopher Harding


Contact Details


Originally not from Wales (an FAQ), I studied at the Universities of Oxford and Exeter before moving still further west to Aberystwyth. During my time here I have also had terms of office as Dean of the former Faculty of Law, Director of Postgraduate Studies for the university, and variously as Deputy and Acting Head of Department before undertaking a term as Head of Department (2007-9). I have been involved in numerous instances of research collaboration with several other people now scattered around the world and was Visiting Fellow at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven during February-March 2011. At present I am also a member of the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Peer Review College and a Strategic Reviewer for the AHRC.

Additional Information

Upcoming Events

  • Socio-Legal Studies Association Conference, University of York, March 2013.
  • 2nd Cartel Crime Conference, University of Luxembourg, June 2013.

Photograph: Prague 2000, courtesy of Ryszard Piotrowicz


Module Coordinator
Additional Tutor

My teaching experience and expertise has been broadly in the fields of European Law, Public International Law, Criminal Justice, the Penal System, Human Rights and Legal Theory. At present I contribute teaching to undergraduate modules in International Law, the History of Crime and Punishment, Criminology of Human Rights Violations, Crime and Misconduct in Business, Politics and the Professions, and Corporate Governance; and LLM modules on the Regulation of Business Cartels, and the Philosophy of Human Rights Protection.

I also have a strong interest in research training and its role in the university curriculum and have been involved in the development of and contributed to postgraduate research training modules at both university and departmental levels.

In recent years I have been a visiting teacher at the Universities of Helsinki, Bergen, Leuven, Viadrina (Frankfurt (Oder)), Brno, and Budapest.

Postgraduate supervision

I have supervised and examined a number of postgraduate theses, especially in the fields of International Law and Criminal Justice. At present I am supervising postgraduate research, as principal supervisor, on the following topics :

  • Consistency and complementarity in sentencing under international criminal law - (Samantha Richards)
  • Human rights and the return of cultural property - (Shea Esterling)
  • International legal regimes for the control of weaponary - (Mick John Hopkins)
  • The role of the Lex Mercatoria in arbitration - (Sitki Tellioglu)
  • War rape and forced marriage in conflict situations (Hannah Baumeister)
  • The emergence of new States and the criteria of statehood under international law (Carrie Fox)


My research has spanned areas of European and International Law, Criminal Jurisprudence, Penal Theory, the History of Crime and the Penal System, and the Protection of Human Rights.

More recently my research has been especially concerned with evolving legal structures and paradigms at the European and international levels, with particular reference to the regulation of crime and delinquency. This has led me into detailed research into the regulation of business cartels and other forms of delinquent organisation, issues of legal form and personality at the supranational level, and the theoretical underpinning of human rights argumentation (for instance the European Legal Atlas and L'Uomo Delinquente).

I have recently prepared a second edition of Regulating Cartels in Europe, with Julian Joshua, for Oxford University Press (published at the end of 2010). I am at present collaborating on a study of European Union penal competence with Estella Baker of the University of Sheffield (to be published as a monograph by Palgrave Macmillan), while continuing also research into cartel criminality (a book to be published by Ashgate Publishing) and criminal responsibility in the context of organisations.

I have also been awarded a grant from the Leverhulme Trust, for a period of two years from October 2012, to carry out research into the deterrent effect of anti-cartel measures. The project is titled Explaining and Understanding Business Cartel Collusion , and its main objective will be to produce a number of 'cartel biographies', drawing upon the experience of dealing with some major cartels in a number of jurisdictions over the past 30 years, as a way of assessing the impact of legal sanctions applied to companies and individuals in actual cases.



Harding, C. 2017. The Role of Whistleblowing and Leniency in Detecting and Preventing Economic and Financial Crime: A game of Give and Take. In L. Katalin., V. Franssen. (eds) Challenges in the Field of Economic and Financial Crime in Europe and the U.S. Hart Studies in European Criminal Law Hart Publishing pp. 95-115. Cadair

Harding, C. 2017. Sanction Accumulation in the context of business offending: The Full Force of the Law ? European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 25 (2) pp. 163-187. 10.1163/15718174-25022111 Cadair


Harding, C., Rowell, M.S. 2016. Protection of Property versus Protection of Commercial Transactions in French and English Law. In J. M. Carruthers. (ed) Transfer of Property and Private International Law. Private International Law 1st edn, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham Cadair

Harding, C. 2016. Cartel Biographies: The researcher as story-teller and the preservation of the research wilderness on the inside of the subject. In J. Blaustein., S. Armstrong., A. Henry. (eds) Reflexivity and Criminal Justice: Intersections of Policy, Practice, and Research. 1st edn, Springer Nature pp. 265-288. Cadair

Harding, C., Banach-Gutierrez, J.B. 2016. EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles and Methods. Routledge Research in EU Law Taylor & Francis, London Cadair

Harding, C., Banach-Gutierrez, J.B. 2016. EU criminal law: National boundaries and the european penal rainbow. In J. B. Banach-Gutierrez., C. Harding. (eds) EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles, and Methods. Routledge Research in EU Law Taylor & Francis, London pp. 37-55. Cadair

Harding, C. 2016. Tasks for criminology in the field of EU criminal law and crime policy. In J. B. Banach-Gutierrez., C. Harding. (eds) EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles, and Methods. Routledge Research in EU Law Taylor & Francis, London pp. 111-124. Cadair

Banach-Gutierrez, J.B., Harding, C. 2016. EU Criminal Law as an Emergent Regime: Editorial Introduction. In C. Harding., J. B. Banach-Gutierrez. (eds) EU Criminal Law and Policy: Values, Principles and Methods. Routledge Research in EU Law Taylor & Francis, London pp. 1-7. Cadair

Harding, C. 2016. The relationship between EU criminal law and competition law. In V. Mitsilegas., M. Bergstrom., T. Konstadinides. (eds) Research Handbook on EU Criminal Law. Research Handbooks in European Law 1st edn, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham pp. 249-271. Cadair

Baker, E., Harding, C. 2016. The European Union and Penal Competence: A Study of Evolving Governance. Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics 1stth edn, Springer Nature Cadair


Harding, C. 2015. EU Criminal Law under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. In A. Arnull., D. Chalmers. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law. Oxford Handbooks in Law 1st edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford pp. 837-866. Cadair

Harding, C., Edwards, J. 2015. Cartel Criminality: The Mythology and Pathology of Business Collusion. 1st edn, Taylor & Francis, Farnham Cadair

Harding, C., Beaton-Wells, C., Edwards, J. 2015. Leniency and Criminal Sanctions in Anti-Cartel Enforcement: Happily Married or Uneasy Bedfellows? Anti-Cartel Enforcement in a Contemporary Age: Leniency Religion. Hart Studies in Competition Law 1st edn, Hart Publishing, Oxford Cadair

Harding, C., Garrett, S.M., Wang, S. 2015. Game-playing and understanding decision-making within legal frameworks: the use of computerised simulation. Information and Communications Technology Law pp. 1-15. 10.1080/13600834.2014.996322 Cadair

Harding, C. 2015. The Interplay of Criminal and Administrative Law in the Context of Market Regulation: The Case of Serious Competition Infringements. In V. Mitsilegas., P. Alldridge., L. Cheliotis. (eds) Globalisation, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Theoretical, Comparative and Transnational Perspectives. 1st edn, Hart Publishing, Oxford pp. 199-218. Cadair


Harding, C.S.P., Harding, N. 2013. Representations of Governance in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe: The Iconography and Dramatic Presentation of the Sovereign Ruler. Law and Humanities 7 (2) pp. 170-192. 10.5235/17521483.7.2.170 Other Cadair

Harding, C.S.P.Edwards, J. 2013. Cartel Biographies: Explaining and Understanding Business Cartel Collusion. Cadair


Harding, C., Beata, J., Banach-Gutierrez, D.J. 2012. Fundamental Rights in European Criminal Justice: An Axiological Perspective. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 20 pp. 239-264. Cadair

Harding, C.S.P., Banach-Gutierrez, J. 2012. The Emergent EU Criminal Policy: Identifying the Species. European Law Review 37 (6) pp. 758-770. Cadair

Harding, C.S.P. 2012. Hard Core Conduct as Crime: the justification for criminalisation in the European context. New Journal of European Criminal Law 3 pp. 138-152. Cadair


Harding, C.S.P. 2011. The Anti-cartel Enforcement Industry: Criminological Perspectives on Cartel Criminalisation. In C. Beaton-Wells., A. Ezrachi. (eds) Criminalising Cartels: A critical interdisciplinary study of an international regulatory movement. Hart Publishing Cadair

Harding, C. 2011. Cartel Deterrence: The Search for Evidence and Argument. Antitrust Bulletin 56 (2) pp. 345-376. Cadair


Harding, C., Joshua, J. 2010. Regulating Cartels in Europe. Oxford Studies in European Law 2nd edn, Oxford University Press Cadair Other

Harding, C. 2010. A Pathology of Business Cartels: Original Sin or The Child of Regulation? New Journal of European Criminal Law 44 (1) pp. 44-58. Other Cadair


Harding, C. 2009. Capturing the Cartel's Friends: Cartel Facilitation and the Idea of Joint Criminal Enterprise. European Law Review 34 (2) pp. 298-309. Cadair Other

Baker, E., Harding, C. 2009. From past imperfect to future perfect? A longitudinal study of the third pillar. European Law Review 34 (1) pp. 25-54. Cadair


Harding, C., Kohl, U., Salmon, N. 2008. Human Rights in the Market Place: The Exploitation of Rights Protection by Economic Actors. Taylor & Francis Cadair


Harding, C. 2007. Criminal Enterprise: Individuals, Organisations and Criminal Responsibility. Willan Publishing Cadair


Harding, C., Harding, N. 2006. Who Designed the Westphalian System? Probing the Epistemology of the Westphalian Debates: 'Moses was but a juggler and King James the new Solomon'. Law, Culture and the Humanities 2 (3) pp. 399-419. 10.1177/1743872106069824 Cadair Other

Harding, C. 2006. Business Collusion as a Criminological Phenomenon: Exploring the Global Criminalisation of Business Cartels. Critical Criminology 14 (2) pp. 181-205. 10.1007/s10612-006-9000-6 Cadair

Harding, C. 2006. VINGT ANS APRÈS: Rainbow Warrior, Legal Ordering, and Legal Complexity. The Singapore Yearbook of International Law pp. 99-116. Cadair Other


Gibbs, A., Harding, C. 2005. Why Go to Court in Europe? An analysis of Cartel Appeals, 1995-2004. European Law Review 3 pp. 349-370. Cadair


Harding, C. 2004. Forging the European Cartel Offence: The Supranational Regulation of Business Conspiracy. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 12 (4) pp. 275-300. 10.1163/1571817042523121 Cadair Other


Harding, C., Williams, J. 1994. Legal Provision in the Rural Environment: Legal Services, Criminal Justice and Welfare Provision in Rural Areas. Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru | University of Wales Press, Cardiff Cadair


Williams, J., Harding, C., Ireland, R. 1988. Legal Education: Outreach to the Professions and the Community. Law Librarian 19 (1) pp. 27. Cadair