Prof Paul Shaw PhD

Prof Paul Shaw


Contact Details



I am leader of the Aquatic, Behavioural & Evolutionary Biology (ABEB) research group.

My research interests lie in understanding the distribution and maintenance of genetic biodiversity within species (particularly in aquatic systems) using molecular genetic methods, the main aim of such work being to define mechanisms underlying population connectivity, evolution and speciation. The applications of this work are to improve assessment and conservation of genetic biodiversity within exploited (fished) species.
Current interests:

  • genetic management of exploited natural populations and species of potential aquaculture interest (cephalopods and fish)
  • investigating larval dynamics and dispersal in marine species
  • evolution of behavioural / reproductive strategies of aquatic organisms (particularly cephalopods)

My aim is to understand the effect on genetic biodiversity of processes occurring at the level of individuals to populations to species.



Joseph, J., Chong, J., Shaw, P. 2017. Multiple paternity in egg clutches of green turtles in Redang Island and Sabah Turtle Islands Park, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 12 (1) pp. 12-22.

McKeown, N., Taylor, A.L., Shaw, P. 2017. Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci for studies of the big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea. Marine Biodiversity 10.1007/s12526-017-0717-0 Cadair

Carreira, G.P., Shaw, P., Gonçalves, J.M., McKeown, N.J. 2017. Congruent Molecular and Morphological Diversity of Macaronesian Limpets: Insights into eco-evolutionary Forces and Tools for Conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science 4 75 10.3389/fmars.2017.00075 Cadair

McKeown, N., Hauser, L., Shaw, P. 2017. Microsatellite genotyping of brown crab Cancer pagurus reveals fine scale selection and 'non-chaotic' genetic patchiness within a high gene flow system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 566 pp. 91-103. 10.3354/meps12044 Cadair

Sales, J.B.d.L., Rodrigues-Filho, L.F.D.S., Ferreira, Y.d.S., Carneiro, J., Asp, N.E., Shaw, P., Haimovici, M., Markaida, U., Ready, J., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. 2017. Divergence of cryptic species of Doryteuthis plei Blainville, 1823 (Loliginidae, Cephalopoda) in the Western Atlantic Ocean is associated with the formation of the Caribbean Sea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106 pp. 44-54. 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.014 Cadair

McKeown, N., Arkhipkin, A.I., Shaw, P. 2017. Regional genetic population structure and fine scale genetic cohesion in the Southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis. Fisheries Research 185 pp. 176-184. 10.1016/j.fishres.2016.09.006 Cadair


Lipinski, M., van der Vyver, F., Shaw, P.W., Sauer, W.H.H. 2016. Life cycle of Chokka squid Loligo reynaudii in South African waters. African Journal of Marine Science 38 (4) pp. 589-593 . 10.2989/1814232X.2016.1230074 Cadair

van der Vyver, F., Sauer, W.H.H., McKeown, N.J., Yemane, D., Shaw, P.W., Lipinski, M. 2016. Phenotypic divergence despite high gene flow in Chokka squid Loligo reynaudii (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae): implications for fishery management. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 96 pp. 1507-1525 . 10.1017/S0025315415001794 Cadair

Blake, M., McKeown, N., Bushell, M., Shaw, P. 2016. DNA extraction from spider webs. Conservation Genetics Resources 8 (3) pp. 219-221. 10.1007/s12686-016-0537-8 Cadair

Crookes, S., Shaw, P. 2016. Isolation by distance and non-identical patterns of gene flow within two river populations of the freshwater fish Rutilus rutilus (L. 1758). Conservation Genetics 17 pp. 861-874. 10.1007/s10592-016-0828-3 Cadair

Henriques, R., Potts, W., Sauer, W.H., Santos, C.V., Kruger, J., Thomas, J.A., Shaw, P. 2016. Molecular genetic, life-history and morphological variation in a coastal warm-temperature sciaenid fish: Evidence for an upwelling-driven speciation event. Journal of Biogeography 43 (9) pp. 1820-1831. 10.1111/jbi.12829 Cadair

Naud, M., Sauer, W.H.H., Mckeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W. 2016. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii. PLoS One 11 (2) e0146995 10.1371/journal.pone.0146995

Harvey, B., Mckeown, N.J., Rastrick, S.P.S., Bertolini, C., Foggo, A., Graham, H., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Milazzo, M., Shaw, P.W., Small, D.P., Moore, P.J. 2016. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification. Scientific Reports 6 20194 10.1038/srep20194 Cadair


Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Boehm, J.T., Shaw, P. 2015. Past and present drivers of population structure in a small coastal fish, the European long snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation Genetics 16 (5) pp. 1139-1153. 10.1007/s10592-015-0728-y Cadair

McKeown, N., Robin, J., Shaw, P. 2015. Species-specific PCR-RFLP for identification of early life history stages of squid and other applications to fisheries research. Fisheries Research 167 pp. 207-209. 10.1016/j.fishres.2015.02.007 Cadair

McKeown, N., Arkhipkin, A.I., Shaw, P. 2015. Integrating genetic and otolith microchemistry data to understand population structure in the Patagonian Hoki (Macruronus magellanicus). Fisheries Research 164 pp. 1-7. 10.1016/j.fishres.2014.10.004 Cadair

Henriques, R., Potts, W., Sauer, W., Shaw, P. 2015. Incipient genetic isolation of a temperate migratory coastal Sciaenid fish (Argyrosomus inodorus) within the Benguela Cold Current system. Marine Biology Research 11 (4) pp. 423-429. 10.1080/17451000.2014.952309 Cadair

Iwata, Y., Sakurai, Y., Shaw, P. 2015. Dimorphic sperm transfer traits for alternative mating tactics in loliginid squid. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81 (1) pp. 147-151. 10.1093/mollus/eyu072 Cadair


McKeown, N., Shaw, P. 2014. Microsatellite loci for studies of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Conservation Genetics Resources 6 (3) pp. 701-703. 10.1007/s12686-014-0191-y Cadair

Potts, W.M., Henriques, R., Santos, C.V., Munnik, K., Ansorge, I., Dufois, F., Booth, A.J., Kirchner, C., Sauer, W.H.H., Shaw, P.W. 2014. Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift, and the hybridization of a coastal fish species. Global Change Biology 20 (9) pp. 2765-2777. 10.1111/gcb.12612 Cadair

Sales, J.B.L., Markaida, U., Shaw, P.W., Haimovici, M., Ready, J.S., Figueredo-Ready, W.M.B., Angioletti, F., Carneiro, M.A., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. 2014. Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 Based on Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences Indicates Genetic Isolation of Populations from North and South Atlantic, and the Possible Presence of Further Cryptic Species. PLoS One 9 (2) e88693 10.1371/journal.pone.0088693 Other Cadair

Henriques, R., Potts, W.M., Santos, C.V., Sauer, W.H.H., Shaw, P.W. 2014. Population Connectivity and Phylogeography of a Coastal Fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current Region: Evidence of an Ancient Vicariant Event. PLoS One 9 (2) e87907 10.1371/journal.pone.0087907 Other Cadair


Cox, K., Thomaes, A., Antonini, G., Zilioli, M., De Gelas, K., Harvey, D., Solano, E., Audisio, P., McKeown, N., Shaw, P., Minetti, R., Bartolozzi, L., Mergeay, J. 2013. Testing the performance of a fragment of the COI gene to identify western Palaearctic stag beetle species (Coleoptera, Lucanidae). ZooKeys 365 pp. 105-126. 10.3897/zookeys.365.5526

Gíslason, Ó.S., Pálsson, S., McKeown, N., Halldórsson, H.P., Shaw, P., Svavarsson, J. 2013. Genetic variation in a newly established population of the Atlantic rock crab Cancer irroratus in Iceland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 494 pp. 219-230. 10.3354/meps10537

de Luna Sales, J.B., Shaw, P., Haimovici, M., Markaida, U., Cunha, R.L., Ready, J., Figueiredo-Ready, W.M.B., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. 2013. New molecular phylogeny of the squids of the family Loliginidae with emphasis on the genus Doryteuthis Naef, 1912: Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences indicate the presence of cryptic species in the southern Atlantic Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68 (2) pp. 293-299. 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.03.027

Juárez, O.E., Rosas, C., Arena, L., Enríquez, L., Camarena, F., McKeown, N., Shaw, P. 2013. Characterization of microsatellite loci developed for the Mexican four-eyed octopus Octopus maya. Conservation Genetics Resources 5 (3) pp. 803-805. 10.1007/s12686-013-9912-x


Taylor, A.L., McKeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W. 2012. Molecular identification of three co-occurring and easily misidentified octopus species using PCR-RFLP techniques. Conservation Genetics Resources 4 (4) pp. 885-887. 10.1007/s12686-012-9665-y Cadair

Nyström, V., Humphrey, J., Skoglund, P., McKeown, N.J., Vartanyan, S., Shaw, P.W., Lidén, K., Jakobsson, M., Barnes, I., Angerbjörn, A., Lister, A., Dalén, L. 2012. Microsatellite genotyping reveals end-Pleistocene decline in mammoth autosomal genetic variation. Molecular Ecology 21 (14) pp. 3391-3402. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05525.x Cadair

Shaw, P.W., Hendrickson, L., McKeown, N.J., Stonier, T., Naud, M., Sauer, W.H.H. 2012. Population structure of the squid Doryteuthis (Loligo) pealeii on the eastern coast of the USA: Reply to Gerlach et al (2012). Marine Ecology Progress Series 450 pp. 285-287. 10.3354/meps09652 Cadair

Henriques, R., Potts, W.M., Sauer, W.H.H., Shaw, P.W. 2012. Evidence of deep genetic divergence between populations of an important recreational fishery species, Lichia amia L. 1758, around southern Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 34 (4) pp. 585-591. 10.2989/1814232X.2012.749809 Cadair


Iwata, Y., Shaw, P., Fujiwara, E., Shiba, K., Kakiuchi, Y., Hirohashi, N. 2011. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11 (1) pp. 236-244. 10.1186/1471-2148-11-236 Cadair Other

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Shaw, P.W. 2011. Serial monogamy in the European long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation Genetics 12 (6) pp. 1645-1649. 10.1007/s10592-011-0253-6 Cadair

Henriques, R., McKeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W. 2011. Isolation of 12 microsatellite markers for geelbeck (Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier, 1860), Sciaenidae), an overexploited marine fish. Conservation Genetics Resources 4 (1) pp. 85-87. 10.1007/s12686-011-9480-x Cadair

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Shaw, P.W. 2011. Historical and contemporary population genetic connectivity of the European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus and implications for management. Journal of Fish Biology 78 (6) pp. 1738-1756. 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.02974.x Cadair

Joseph, J., Shaw, P.W. 2011. Multiple paternity in egg clutches of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Conservation Genetics 12 (2) pp. 601-605. 10.1007/s10592-010-0168-7 Cadair


Shaw, P.W., Hendrickson, L., McKeown, N., Stonier, T., Naud, M.-.J., Sauer, W.H.H. 2010. Discrete spawning aggregations of loliginid squid do not represent genetically distinct populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408 pp. 117-127. 10.3354/meps08593 Cadair

Hamilton, K.M., Shaw, P.W., Morritt, D. 2010. Physiological responses of three crustacean species to infection by the dinoflagellate-like protist Hematodinium (Alveolata: Syndinea). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 105 (2) pp. 194-196. 10.1016/j.jip.2010.06.007 Cadair

Genner, M.J., Nichols, P., Shaw, P.W., Carvalho, G.R., Robinson, R.L., Turner, G.F. 2010. Population structure on breeding grounds of Lake Malawi's 'twilight zone' cichlid fishes. Journal of Biogeography 37 (2) pp. 258-269. 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02196.x Cadair

Hamilton, K.M., Morritt, D., Shaw, P.W. 2010. Genetic diversity of the crustacean parasite Hematodinium (Alveolata, Syndinea). European Journal of Protistology 46 (1) pp. 17-28. 10.1016/j.ejop.2009.10.002 Cadair

Potts, W.M., Sauer, W.H.H., Henriques, R., Sequesseque, S., Santos, C.V., Shaw, P.W. 2010. The biology, life history and management needs of a large sciaenid fish, Argyrosomus coronus, in Angola. African Journal of Marine Science 32 (2) pp. 247-258. 10.2989/1814232X.2010.501567 Cadair


Hamilton, K.M., Shaw, P.W., Morritt, D. 2009. Prevalence and seasonality of Hematodinium (Alveolata: Syndinea) in a Scottish crustacean community. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66 (9) pp. 1837-1845. 10.1093/icesjms/fsp152 Cadair

Doubleday, Z.A., Semmens, J.M., Smolenski, A.J., Shaw, P.W. 2009. Microsatellite DNA markers and morphometrics reveal a complex population structure in a merobenthic octopus species (Octopus maorum) in south-east Australia and New Zealand. Marine Biology 156 (6) pp. 1183-1192. 10.1007/s00227-009-1160-y Cadair

Ungfors, A., McKeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W., Andre, C. 2009. Lack of spatial genetic variation in the edible crab (Cancer pagurus) in the Kattegat-Skagerrak area. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66 (3) pp. 462-469. 10.1093/icesjms/fsn223 Cadair

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Santos, S.V., Shaw, P.W. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology 75 (6) pp. 1505-1512. 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02371.x Cadair


Genner, M.J., Nichols, P., Shaw, P.W., Carvalho, G.R., Robinson, R.L., Turner, G.F. 2008. Genetic homogeneity among breeding grounds and nursery areas of an exploited Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Freshwater Biology 53 (9) pp. 1823-1831. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02004.x Cadair

Naud, M., Shaw, P.W. 2008. Isolation and characterization of highly polymorphic microsatellites in the chokka squid, Loligo reynaudii. Molecular Ecology Resources 8 (4) pp. 943-945. 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02125.x Cadair

Mckeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W. 2008. Polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci for studies of brown crab, Cancer pagurus L. Molecular Ecology Resources 8 (3) pp. 653-655. 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.02033.x Cadair

McKeown, N.J., Shaw, P.W. 2008. Single paternity within broods of the brown crab Cancer pagurus: a highly fecund species with long-term sperm storage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 368 pp. 209-215. 10.3354/meps07634 Cadair


Genner, M.J., Nichols, P., Carvalho, G., Robinson, R.L., Shaw, P.W., Smith, A., Turner, G.F. 2007. Evolution of a cichlid fish in a Lake Malawi satellite lake. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274 (1623) pp. 2249-2257. 10.1098/rspb.2007.0619 Cadair

Semmens, J.M., Pecl, G.T., Gillanders, B.M., Waluda, C.M., Shea, E.K., Jouffre, D., Ichii, T., Zumholz, K., Katugin, O.N., Leporati, S.C., Shaw, P.W. 2007. Approaches to resolving cephalopod movement and migration patterns. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17 (2-3) pp. 401-423. 10.1007/s11160-007-9048-8 Cadair

Perez-Losada, M., Nolte, M.J., Crandall, K.A., Shaw, P.W. 2007. Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Molecular Ecology 16 (13) pp. 2667-2679. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03333.x Cadair

Genner, M.J., Seehausen, O., Lunt, D.H., Joyce, D.A., Shaw, P.W., Carvalho, G.R., Turner, G.F. 2007. Age of cichlids: New dates for ancient lake fish radiations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (5) pp. 1269-1282. 10.1093/molbev/msm050 Cadair

Weetman, D., Ruggiero, A., Mariani, S., Shaw, P.W., Lawler, A.R., Hauser, L. 2007. Hierarchical population genetic structure in the commercially exploited shrimp Crangon crangon identified by AFLP analysis. Marine Biology 151 (2) pp. 565-575. 10.1007/s00227-006-0497-8 Cadair

Genner, M.J., Nichols, P., Carvalho, G.R., Robinson, R.L., Shaw, P.W., Turner, G.F. 2007. Reproductive isolation among deep-water cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi differing in monochromatic male breeding dress. Molecular Ecology 16 (3) pp. 651-662. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03173.x Cadair

Hamilton, K.M., Morritt, D., Shaw, P.W. 2007. Molecular and histological identification of the crustacean parasite Hematodinium sp (Alveolata, Syndinea) in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Acta Protozoologica 46 (3) pp. 183-192. Cadair


Weetman, D., Hauser, L., Bayes, M.K., Ellis, J.R., Shaw, P.W. 2006. Genetic population structure across a range of geographic scales in the commercially exploited marine gastropod Buccinum undatum. Marine Ecology Progress Series 317 pp. 157-169. 10.3354/meps317157 Cadair


Weetman, D., Hauser, L., Shaw, P.W., Bayes, M.K. 2005. Microsatellite markers for the whelk Buccinum undatum. Molecular Ecology Notes 5 (2) pp. 361-362. 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.00926.x Cadair

Naud, M., Shaw, P.W., Hanlon, R.T., Havenhand, J.N. 2005. Evidence for biased use of sperm sources in wild female giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272 (1567) pp. 1047-1051. 10.1098/rspb.2004.3031 Cadair


Shaw, P.W., Arkhipkin, A.I., Al-Khairulla, H. 2004. Genetic structuring of Patagonian toothfish populations in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean: the effect of the Antarctic Polar Front and deep-water troughs as barriers to genetic exchange. Molecular Ecology 13 (11) pp. 3293-3303. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02327.x Cadair