Prof Mark Lee

Prof Mark Lee

Emeritus Professor

Department of Computer Science

Contact Details


I am an Emeritus Professor of Intelligent Systems in the Department of Computer Science at Aberystwyth University. I am a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales (the national academy of Wales) and have degrees in engineering and psychology. My career has mainly concentrated on the application of intelligent reasoning techniques to robot systems.

After many years of applying artificial intelligence methods (AI) to robot systems, I believe AI is not sufficient, in its present form, for building truly general-purpose robots that are friendly, social, and useful. 

The missing element is development. We all develop from infants and during our remarkably extended childhood we self-learn an enormous range of skills and experience. The new field of Developmental Robotics is creating new computational models of infant development for novel robot learning techniques. My recent research grants have funding the implementation of experiments on an iCub humanoid robot to explore this fascinating new research area. My new book covers these ideas for the general reader, see


Kumar, S, Giagkos, A, Shaw, P, Braud, R, Lee, M & Shen, Q 2022, 'Discovering Schema-based Action Sequences through Play in Situated Humanoid Robots', IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1021-1035. 10.1109/TCDS.2021.3094513
Braud, R, Giagkos, A, Shaw, P, Lee, M & Shen, Q 2021, 'Robot Multi-Modal Object Perception and Recognition: Synthetic Maturation of Sensorimotor Learning in Embodied Systems', IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, vol. 13, no. 2, 8957396, pp. 416-428. 10.1109/TCDS.2020.2965985
Shaw, P, Lee, M, Shen, Q, Hirsh-Pasek, K, Adolph, KE, Oudeyer, PY & Popp, J 2020, 'Editorial: Modeling Play in Early Infant Development', Frontiers in Neurorobotics, vol. 14, 50. 10.3389/fnbot.2020.00050
Lee, M 2020, How to Grow a Robot: Developing Human-Friendly, Social AI. 1 edn, MIT Press.
Lee, M 2020, Robotics and Early Development. in JB Benson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development. 2 edn, vol. 3, Elsevier, pp. 25-33. 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23587-6
More publications on the Research Portal