Prof Bryn Hubbard BA Geography (University of Oxford) PhD (University of Cambridge)

Prof Bryn Hubbard

Professor

Contact Details

Profile

2013 Director of Research, Institute of Geography, History, Politics and Psychology, Aberystwyth University.

2011 Director of Research, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University.

2011 Professor, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University.

2009 Director of the Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University.

2005-2011 Reader in Glaciology. Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, UW Aberystwyth.

2001-2004 Senior Lecturer in Glaciology. Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, UW Aberystwyth.

1994-2000 Lecturer in Glaciology. Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, UW Aberystwyth.

1992-1994 Post-doctoral Research Associate. Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. ('Water storage, drainage evolution and water quality in Alpine glacial environments').

1988-1992 Ph.D. Glaciology. Fitzwilliam College and Department of Geography, University of Cambridge ('Basal ice facies and their formation in the western Alps').

1983-1986 B.A. Geography (First Class). Christ Church and School of Geography, University of Oxford.

Additional Information

Postgraduate Students

PDRA

Name: Dr David Ashmore Project: Impact of Surface Melt and Ponding on Ice Shelf Dynamics and Stability (MIDAS)
Funding source: NERC

Name: Dr. Sam Doyle Project: Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE)
Funding source: NERC
Employment dates: Dec. 2013 - April 2017

PHD

Student name: Ms. Katie Miles Student primary affiliation: Aberystwyth University
Thesis title: Subglacial hydrology of Himalayan, debris-covered glaciers
Funding source: Aberystwyth University Supervisory role: Primary Advisor
Status: Currently in 1st yr

Student name: Mr. Stephen Brough Student primary affiliation: Aberystwyth University
Thesis title: Dynamic glaciology of glacier-like forms on Mars
Funding source: Aberystwyth University
Supervisory role: Primary supervisor
Status: Currently in 3rd yrStudent name: Mr. Stephen Jennings Student primary affiliation: Aberystwyth University
Thesis title: Origin of foliation in ice masses
Funding source: NERC
Supervisory role: Advisory team
Status: Currently in 4th yr

Student name: Mr. Pierre Lardeux Student primary affiliation: Aberystwyth University
Thesis title: Modelling debris-covered glaciers
Funding source: Aberystwyth University
Supervisory role: Advisory team
Status: Currently in 3rd yr

Teaching

Research

Research Interests

Current research interests include:

  • links between subglacial drainage and ice motion via hot-water borehole access (CRIOS, SAFIRE & RResearch Projects).
  • ice shelf structure and ice characteristics, including ice coring and hot-water drilling (IceCon and MIDAS Research Projects).
  • the physical character of glacier ice and basal ice.
  • optical televiewing (OPTV) of boreholes in glaciers, ice sheets and ice shelves.
    • technique development: Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland.
    • structural glaciology and sediment transfer: Midre Lov?nbreen, Svalbard.
    • ice shelf structure: Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf and Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica.
    • ice sheet structure: NEEM deep borehole, Greenland.
  • causes and consequences of the formation of basal ice.
  • the structure and dynamics of glacial lakes and drainage systems.
  • subglacial sediment characteristics.
  • the occurrence and physical characteristics of glacier-like forms on Mars.

Research experience includes 28 consecutive years of fieldwork at glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, Svalbard, the European Alps, Peru, the Canadian Rockies, Norway, and the Canadian Arctic.

Current community activities include:

  • Editor-in-Chief: _Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface.
  • Core Member: Natural Environment Research Council's Peer Review College
  • Scientific Editor: Annals of Glaciology.
  • Review Committee Member: Geology.
  • UK Correspondent: _International Glaciological Society.
  • UK Correspondent: _International Association of Cryospheric Sciences.

Research Groups

Publications

2017

Miles, K.E., Hubbard, B., Irvine-Fynn, T., Miles, E.S., Quincey, D.J., Rowan, A.V. 2017. Review article: The hydrology of debris-covered glaciers – state of the science and future research directions. Cryosphere Discussions pp. 1-48. 10.5194/tc-2017-210

Ashmore, D.W., Hubbard, B., Luckman, A., Kulessa, B., Bevan, S., Booth, A., Kuipers Munneke, P., O'leary, M., Sevestre, H., Holland, P.R. 2017. Ice and firn heterogeneity within Larsen C Ice Shelf from borehole optical televiewing. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 122 (5) pp. 1139-1153. 10.1002/2016JF004047 Cadair

Bevan, S., Luckman, A.J., Hubbard, B., Kulessa, B., Ashmore, D., Kuipers Munneke, P., O'Leary, M., Booth, A.P., Sevestre, H., McGrath, D. 2017. Centuries of intense surface melt on Larsen C Ice Shelf. pp. 1-21. 10.5194/tc-2017-81

How, P., Benn, D.I., Hulton, N.R.J., Hubbard, B., Luckman, A.J., Sevestre, H., Van Pelt, W.J.J., Lindbäck, K., Kohler, J., Boot, W. 2017. Rapidly-changing subglacial hydrology pathways at tidewater glacier revealed through simultaneous observations of water pressure, supraglacial lakes, meltwater plumes and surface velocities. pp. 1-29. 10.5194/tc-2017-74

Kuipers Munneke, P., McGrath, D., Medley, B., Luckman, A., Bevan, S., Kulessa, B., Jansen, D., Booth, A., Smeets, P., Hubbard, B., Ashmore, D., Van Den Broeke, M., Sevestre, H., Steffen, K., Shepherd, A., Gourmelen, N. 2017. Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Cryosphere Discussions pp. 1-24. 10.5194/tc-2017-44 Other Cadair

Irvine-Fynn, T., Hubbard, B. 2017. Glacier hydrology and runoff. International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology. Wiley Cadair

2016

Philippe, M., Tison, J., Fjøsne, K., Hubbard, B., Kjær, H.A., Lenaerts, J.T.M., Sheldon, S.G., De Bondt, K., Claeys, P., Pattyn, F. 2016. Ice core evidence for a recent increase in snow accumulation in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Cryosphere Discussions 10 (5) pp. 2501-2516. 10.5194/tc-2016-27 Other Cadair

Philippe, M., Tison, J., Fjøsne, K., Hubbard, B., Kjær, H.A., Lenaerts, J.T.M., Drews, R., Sheldon, S.G., De Bondt, K., Claeys, P., Pattyn, F. 2016. Ice core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Cryosphere 10 (5) pp. 2501-2516. 10.5194/tc-10-2501-2016 Other Cadair

Brough, S., Hubbard, B., Hubbard, A. 2016. Former extent of glacier-like forms on Mars. Icarus 274 pp. 37-49. 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.03.006 Cadair

Lardeux, P., Glasser, N., Holt, T., Hubbard, B. 2016. Glaciological and geomorphological map of Glacier Noir and Glacier Blanc, French Alps. Journal of Maps 12 (3) pp. 582-596. 10.1080/17445647.2015.1054905 Cadair

Hubbard, B., Luckman, A., Ashmore, D.W., Bevan, S., Kulessa, B., Kuipers Munneke, P., Philippe, M., Jansen, D., Booth, A., Sevestre, H., Tison, J., O’Leary, M., Rutt, I. 2016. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds. Nature Communications 7 11897 10.1038/ncomms11897 Cadair

Drews, R., Brown, J., Matsuoka, K., Witrant, E., Philippe, M., Hubbard, B., Pattyn, F. 2016. Constraining variable density of ice shelves using wide-angle radar measurements. Cryosphere 10 (2) pp. 811-823. 10.5194/tc-10-811-2016 Other Cadair

Kulessa, B., Brisbourne, A., Booth, A., Kuipers Munneke, P., Bevan, S., Luckman, A., Hubbard, B., Gourmelen, N., Palmer, S., Holland, P., Ashmore, D., Shepherd, A. 2016. Firn air-content of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, from seismic velocities, borehole surveys and firn modelling. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. Cadair

Young, T.J., Christoffersen, P., Nicholls, K., Lok, L.B., Doyle, S., Hubbard, B., Stewart, C., Hofstede, C., Bougamont, M., Todd, J., Brennan, P., Hubbard, A. 2016. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 2. High magnitude englacial strain detected with autonomous phase-sensitive FMCW radar on Store Glacier, West Greenland. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. Cadair

Hubbard, B., Doyle, S., Christoffersen, P., Young, T.J., Hofstede, C., Hubbard, A., Box, J., Todd, J., Bougamont, M. 2016. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 1. Borehole-based englacial and subglacial measurements from a rapidly-moving tidewater glacier: Store Glacier, Greenland . European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. Cadair

2015

Drews, R., Brown, J., Matsuoka, K., Witrant, E., Philippe, M., Hubbard, B., Pattyn, F. 2015. Anomalously-dense firn in an ice-shelf channel revealed by wide-angle radar. Cryosphere Discussions 9 pp. 5647-5680. 10.5194/tcd-9-5647-2015

Lovell, H., Fleming, E.J., Benn, D.I., Hubbard, B., Lukas, S., Rea, B.R., Noormets, R., Flink, A.E. 2015. Debris entrainment and landform genesis during tidewater glacier surges. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 120 (8) pp. 1574-1595. 10.1002/2015JF003509 Cadair

Jennings, S.J.A., Hambrey, M.J., Glasser, N.F., James, T.D., Hubbard, B. 2015. Structural glaciology of Austre Brøggerbreen, northwest Svalbard. Journal of Maps 12 (5) pp. 790-796. 10.1080/17445647.2015.1076744 Cadair

Jansen, D., Luckman, A.J., Cook, A., Bevan, S., Kulessa, B., Hubbard, B., Holland, P.R. 2015. Brief Communication: Newly developing rift in Larsen C Ice Shelf presents significant risk to stability. Cryosphere 9 (3) pp. 1223-1227. 10.5194/tc-9-1223-2015 Other Cadair

Brough, S., Hubbard, B., Souness, C.J., Grindrod, P., Davis, J. 2015. Landscapes of polyphase glaciation: eastern Hellas Planitia, Mars. Journal of Maps 12 (3) pp. 530-542. 10.1080/17445647.2015.1047907 Cadair

Lovell, H., Fleming, E.J., Benn, D.I., Hubbard, B., Lukas, S., Naegeli, K. 2015. Former dynamic behaviour of a cold-based valley glacier on Svalbard revealed by basal ice and structural glaciology investigations. Journal of Glaciology 61 (226) pp. 309-328. 10.3189/2015JoG14J120 Other Cadair

Glasser, N., Jennings, S.J.A., Hambrey, M., Hubbard, B. 2015. Origin and dynamic significance of longitudinal structures (“flow stripes”) in the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Earth Surface Dynamics 3 pp. 239-249. 10.5194/esurf-3-239-2015 Cadair

Doyle, S., Hubbard, A., van de Wal, R., Box, J., van As, D., Scharrer, K., Meierbachtol, T., Smeets, P., Harper, J., Johansson, E., Mottram, R., Mikkelsen, A., Wilhelms, F., Patton, H., Christoffersen, P., Hubbard, B. 2015. Amplified melt and flow of the Greenland ice sheet driven by late-summer cyclonic rainfall. Nature Geoscience 10.1038/NGEO2482 Other Cadair

2014

Hubbard, B., Souness, C.J., Brough, S. 2014. Glacier-like forms on Mars. Cryosphere 8 pp. 2047-2061. 10.5194/tc-8-2047-2014 Cadair

Glasser, N.F., Jennings, S.J.A., Hambrey, M.J., Hubbard, B. 2014. Are longitudinal ice-surface structures on the Antarctic Ice Sheet indicators of long-term ice-flow configuration? Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions 3 (2) pp. 239-249. 10.5194/esurfd-2-911-2014 Cadair

Doyle, S.H., Hubbard, A.L., Fitzpatrick, A.A.W., Van As, D., Mikkelsen, A., Pettersson, R., Hubbard, B.P. 2014. Persistent flow acceleration within the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophysical Research Letters 41 (3) pp. 899-905. 10.1002/2013GL058933 Cadair

2013

Hubbard, B., Tison, J., Philippe, M., Heene, B., Pattyn, F., Malone, T., Freitag, J. 2013. Ice shelf density reconstructed from optical televiewer borehole logging. Geophysical Research Letters 40 (22) pp. 5882-5887. 10.1002/2013GL058023 Cadair

Hubbard, B.P., Malone, T.S. 2013. TV on ice. Cadair

Souness, C.J., Hubbard, B. 2013. An alternative interpretation of late Amazonian ice flow: Protonilus Mensae, Mars. Icarus 225 (1) pp. 495-505. 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.03.030 Cadair

Malone, T.S., Hubbard, B.P., Merton-Lyn, D., Worthington, P., Zwiggelaar, R. 2013. Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images. Computers and Geosciences 51 pp. 381-389. 10.1016/j.cageo.2012.09.002 Cadair

Hubbard, B., Malone, T. 2013. Optical-televiewer-based logging of the uppermost 630 m of the NEEM deep ice borehole, Greenland. Annals of Glaciology 54 (64) pp. 83-89. 10.3189/2013AoG64A201 Cadair

2012

Pattyn, F., Matsuoka, K., Callens, D., Conway, H., Depoorter, M., Docquier, D., Hubbard, B., Samyn, D., Tison, J.L. 2012. Melting and refreezing beneath Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (East Antarctica) inferred from radar, GPS, and ice core data. Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (F4) 10.1029/2011JF002154 Cadair

Hubbard, B., Tison, J., Pattyn, F., Dierckx, M., Boereboom, T., Samyn, D. 2012. Optical-televiewer-based identification and characterization of material facies associated with an Antarctic ice-shelf rift. Annals of Glaciology 53 (60) pp. 137-146. 10.3189/2012AoG60A045 Cadair

Souness, C., Hubbard, B. 2012. Mid-latitude glaciation on Mars. Progress in Physical Geography 36 (2) pp. 238-261. 10.1177/0309133312436570 Cadair

Souness, C., Hubbard, B., Milliken, R.E., Quincey, D. 2012. An inventory and population-scale analysis of martian glacier-like forms. Icarus 217 (1) pp. 243-255. 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.10.020 Cadair

2011

Roberson, S.L., Hubbard, B., Coulson, H.R., Boomer, I. 2011. Physical Properties and Formation of Flutes at a Polythermal Valley Glacier: Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 93 (2) pp. 71-88. 10.1111/j.1468-0459.2011.00420.x Cadair

Hubbard, B. 2011. Subglacial drainage system. In V. P. Singh., P. Singh., U. K. Haritashya. (eds) Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Springer Nature pp. 1095-1099. 10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2_545 Cadair

Fischer, U.H., Mair, D., Kavanaugh, J.L., Willis, I., Nienow, P., Hubbard, B. 2011. Modelling ice-bed coupling during a glacier speed-up event: Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Hydrological Processes 25 (9) pp. 1361-1372. 10.1002/hyp.7895 Cadair

Hubbard, B., Milliken, R.E., Kargel, J.S., Limaye, A., Souness, C. 2011. Geomorphological characterisation and interpretation of a mid-latitude glacier-like form: Hellas Planitia, Mars. Icarus 211 (1) pp. 330-346. 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.10.021 Cadair

Edwards, A., Anesio, A.M., Edwards Rassner, S.M., Sattler, B., Hubbard, B.P., Perkins, W.T., Young, M., Griffith, G.W. 2011. Possible interactions between bacterial diversity, microbial activity and supraglacial hydrology of cryoconite holes in Svalbard. ISME Journal 5 (1) pp. 150-160. 10.1038/ismej.2010.100 Cadair

2010

Hambrey, M.J., Bamber, J., Christoffersen, P., Glasser, N.F., Hubbard, A.L., Hubbard, B.P., Larter, R. 2010. Glaciers – no nonsense science. Geoscientist 20 (6) pp. 18-23. Other Cadair

Roberson, S.L., Hubbard, B. 2010. Application of borehole optical televiewing to investigating the 3-D structure of glaciers: implications for the formation of longitudinal debris ridges, midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard. Journal of Glaciology 56 (195) pp. 143-156. 10.3189/002214310791190802 Cadair

2009

Hubbard, B., Cook, S., Coulson, H. 2009. Basal ice facies: a review and unifying approach. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (19-20) pp. 1956-1969. 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.03.005 Cadair

2008

Hubbard, B., Roberson, S., Samyn, D., Merton-Lyn, D. 2008. Digital optical televiewing of ice boreholes. Journal of Glaciology 54 (188) pp. 823-830. 10.3189/002214308787779988 Cadair

Chandler, D.M., Hubbard, B. 2008. Quantifying sample bias in clast fabric measurements. Sedimentology 55 (4) pp. 925-938. 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2007.00928.x Cadair

Mair, D., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P., Willis, I., Fischer, U.H. 2008. Diurnal fluctuations in glacier ice deformation: Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33 (8) pp. 1272-1284. 10.1002/esp.1612 Cadair

Hubbard, B., Clemmens, S. 2008. Recent high-resolution surface velocity and elevation change at a high-altitude, debris-covered glacier : Chacraraju, Peru. Journal of Glaciology 54 (186) pp. 479-486. 10.3189/002214308785837057 Cadair

Chandler, D.M., Hubbard, B., Hubbard, A.L., Murray, T., Rippin, D. 2008. Optimising ice flow law parameters using borehole deformation measurements and numerical modelling. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (12) 10.1029/2008GL033801 Cadair Other

2007

Parry, V., Nienow, P., Mair, D., Scott, J., Hubbard, B., Steffen, K., Wingham, D. 2007. Investigations of meltwater refreezing and density variations in the snowpack and firn within the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. Annals of Glaciology 46 (1) pp. 61-68. 10.3189/172756407782871332 Cadair

Hambrey, M., Christoffersen, P., Glasser, N., Hubbard, B. 2007. Glacial Sedimentary Processes and Products. Other Cadair

West, L.J., Rippin, D.M., Murray, T., Mader, H.M., Hubbard, B. 2007. Dielectric permittivity measurements on ice cores: implications for interpretation of radar to yield glacial unfrozen water content. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 12 (1) pp. 37-45. 10.2113/JEEG12.1.37 Cadair

2006

Chandler, D.M., Hubbard, A.L., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P.W. 2006. A Monte Carlo error analysis for basal sliding velocity calculations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 111 (F4) F04005 10.1029/2006JF000476 Cadair Other

2005

Nienow, P.W., Hubbard, A.L., Hubbard, B.P., Chandler, D.M., Mair, D.W.F., Sharp, M.J., Willis, I.C. 2005. Hydrological controls on diurnal ice flow variability in valley glaciers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 110 (F4) F04002 10.1029/2003JF000112 Other Cadair

Hubbard, B., Heald, A., Reynolds, J., Quincey, D.J., Richardson, S.D. 2005. Impact of a rock avalanche on a moraine-dammed proglacial lake: Laguna Safuna Alta, Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30 (10) pp. 1251-1264. 10.1002/esp.1198 Cadair

Hambrey, M.J., Murray, T., Glasser, N.F., Hubbard, A.L., Hubbard, B., Stuart, G., Hansen, S., Kohler, J. 2005. Structure and changing dynamics of a polythermal valley glacier on a centennial timescale: Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard. Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (F1) F01006 10.1029/2004JF000128 Cadair

2004

Mair, D., Willis, I., Fischer, U.H., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P., Hubbard, A. 2004. Hydrological controls on patterns of surface, internal and basal motion during three "spring events": Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Journal of Glaciology 49 (167) pp. 555-567. 10.3189/172756503781830467 Other Cadair

Hubbard, A.L., Lawson, W., Anderson, B., Hubbard, B., Blatter, H. 2004. Evidence for subglacial ponding across Taylor Glacier, Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology 39 (1) pp. 79-84. 10.3189/172756404781813970 Other Cadair

Hubbard, B., Glasser, N.F., Hambrey, M.J., Etienne, J.L. 2004. A sedimentological and isotopic study of the origin of supraglacial debris bands: Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Journal of Glaciology 50 (169) pp. 157-170. 10.3189/172756504781830114 Other Cadair

2003

Hubbard, B., Hubbard, A.L., Mader, H.M., Tison, J., Grust, K., Nienow, P. 2003. Spatial variability in the water content and rheology of temperate glaciers: Glacier de Tsanfleuron, Switzerland. Annals of Glaciology 37 (1) pp. 1-6. 10.3189/172756403781815474 Other Cadair

Willis, I., Mair, D., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P., Fischer, U.H., Hubbard, A. 2003. Seasonal variations in ice deformation and basal motion across the tongue of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Annals of Glaciology 36 (1) pp. 157-167. 10.3189/172756403781816455 Other Cadair

2002

Tranter, M., Sharp, M.J., Lamb, H.R., Brown, G.H., Hubbard, B.P., Willis, I.C. 2002. Geochemical weathering at the bed of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland - a new model. Hydrological Processes 16 (5) pp. 959-993. 10.1002/hyp.309 Cadair

Hubbard, B. 2002. Direct measurement of basal motion at a hard-bedded, temperate glacier: Glacier de Tsanfleuron, Switzerland. Journal of Glaciology 48 (160) pp. 1-8. 10.3189/172756502781831610 Other Cadair Other

2000

Hubbard, A., Willis, I., Sharp, M., Mair, D., Nienow, P., Hubbard, B., Blatter, H. 2000. Glacier mass-balance determination by remote sensing and high-resolution modelling. Journal of Glaciology 46 (154) pp. 491-498. 10.3189/172756500781833016 Other Cadair

Siegert, M.J., Kwok, R., Mayer, C., Hubbard, B. 2000. Water exchange between the subglacial Lake Vostok and the overlying ice sheet. Nature 403 (6770) pp. 643-646. 10.1038/35001049 Other Cadair

Hubbard, A., Hubbard, B. 2000. The potential contribution of high-resolution glacier flow modeling to structural glaciology. Geological Society Special Publications 176 pp. 135-146. 10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.176.01.10 Other Cadair

1998

Hubbard, B., Hubbard, A. 1998. Bedrock surface roughness and the distribution of subglacially precipitated carbonate deposits: Implications for formation at Glacier de Tsanfleuron, Switzerland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23 (3) pp. 261-270. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199803)23:3<261::AID-ESP848>3.0.CO;2-5 Other Cadair